Title of the paper:
Application of Grounded Theory in Health Research: Health Sector
Prepared By Ms. ROHINI SHINDE
Date: 11/2/08 Place: TISS, Mumbai.
Introduction to the Health Sector
Introduction: If one talk about Health sector in general, one would realise that it is very broad and complex sector involving different kinds of Health problems, complicated diagnostics methods, multiple and tedious treatment regimes, and multiple stakeholders with different interests and requirements. For example patients, their families, health care professionals, health care providers, policy makers, implementers, etc. At the same time we see other social-cultural, economical, environmental, emotional, psychological and political factors affecting the Health scenario from all dimensions. What happens in Health sector is that all these things interact together, sometimes they work together, facilitate each other or even collide with each other with an aim to produce ‘Health’ as the end product.
The following points would conceptualize the general picture of Health Sector: Equity in Health care: It aims to reduce regional disparities in terms of
providing and maintaining the infrastructure required for Health Sector. Similarly policies and programmes are designed to remove gender, classes and castes disparities. Quality of Health care: it involves Standards, accreditations and quality assurance. etc Primary Health Care: it has rural health, urban health and referral services. Public Health: it ensures provision and management of Health for general population. In India, Health is the States’ responsibility, one can see many National Vertical Health programmes are designed at Centre and implemented by the state agencies. It includes other components closely related with
Health like Pollution, Social waste management, sanitation and water supply. Mental Health: It involves Stress, depression, mental disorders, etc. Nutrition: In India, the middle class and all the above economical classes have started becoming conscious about their nutritional intake. At the other hand, majority of rural and urban poor do not even get the required calories daily, the most vulnerable groups for malnutrition are children and women.
Women and Child Health.: The most vulnerable groups in Health sector are women and children mainly because they are not earners and decision makers and have less exposure to outside world including health care services. Population: it provides with ratios and percentages of different groups in the population which help policy makers to design health policies and programmes and implementers. For example the population census provides ‘Sex ratio’, which is very vital in forming the health programmes and implementing them. Health care providers: It includes planners and policy makers at centre, and at State levels. Government Implementing agencies like public hospitals, district health centre, urban Health centre etc. It also includes private players like private hospitals, Superficiality Hospitals, and General Practitioners available at community level. In addition to this one can see the voluntary sector commonly known as NGO sector, as well with charity hospitals, clinics, facilities providers etc. Health professional: This include Medical (Doctors, Nurses) Para medical (ANMs, lab technicians, etc) and even social workers and volunteers. Other important component in Health sector is Health management which is achieved by Health promotion and advocacy, Human Resource Development for Health, Health systems management, health financing and so on.. Health Research: Last but not least one can see Health Research playing important role in Health sector. Its contribution to the sector is tremendous.
An attempt is made to capture the above mentioned points in the conceptual map given on next page…
Policy makers: Health policies/programs...