Annotated Bibliography on Hypertension with African Americans

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Running head: The effects of hypertension

The Causes of Hypertension and Effect on the Cardiovascular Syst Course: HSC 46

Annotated Bibiography

Appel, L. J., H., Jackson.W.T., Greene, T .,. Agodoa, L.Y., Astor, B.C . Bakris, G.L ., William H. Cleveland, W.H., Charleston, J.,Gabriel Contreras, G ., Faulkner,M.L.,Gabba F.B., Gassman, J.J., Lee A. Hebert., . Jamerson, K. A., Kopple,J.D., Kusek, J. W., Lash,J. P., Janice P. Lea., Julia B. Lewis., Lipkowit, M. S.,Massry,S.G., Mille, E. R., Norris, K., Phillip,R A ., Pogue, V.A.,Otelio S. Randall., Stephen G. Rostand., Smogorzewski, M. J., Robert D. Toto, R. D., Wang, X. (2004). ). Intensive- Blood Control in Hypertensive Chronic Kidney Disease. The New England Journal of Medicine. 363 (10) 918-929. The research study is base on the effect of chronic high blood pressure on the kidney, leading ton kidney failure. In this observation study on end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in a predominately African Americans population, there were randomly assigned (1094) to those who had aggressive high blood pressure control, and those, with those less control high blood pressure. In the trial phase patients were invited to enroll in cohort phase in which the blood pressure target was less than 130/80 mm Hg. In the trial phase the mean blood pressure was 130/78 mm Hg in the intensive control group and 141/86 mm Hg in standard- control group. During the cohort phase, the corresponding mean blood pressures were 131/78 mm Hg 134/78 mm Hg. In both phases, there are no differences with the two groups. However, the studies assets that hypertension is not the only factor that contributes to kidney disease, especially with patients with diabetes. The study also found out that with different interventions to control blood pressure, it’s founds that using aggressive treatment in patient with hypertension with baseline proteinuria makes no difference. The study applies both Social Capital Theory and Social Network Theory. On the social capital theory application it involve many members in medical research community to create the networks, norms, and trust needed to cooperate in social situations with trust and reciprocity to complete the study. On the social networking theory application by using a define group and then identifying the characteristics of the network by using a facilitator from the group of researchers as Dr. Appel, the leader in research study. Social Networking theory will train the facilitator from the groups. Base on the research study it applied theories on the effect of hypertension on end-stage renal disease African Americans, shows the highest rate of deaths, and the number one killer disease from renal failure in United States. Kual, L.,& Nidiry, J. J. (1999). Management of the obesity in low-income African Americans. Journal of the National Medical Association. 91 (3) 139-143. The research study used two main criteria in educating African Americans about cardiovascular related diseases and the community at large. The components to these teaching are nutrition education, exercise, and behavior modification related to food intake. Management and treatment of obesity is one of the main national pandemic facing United States proposing serious clinical challenges with the medical communities. First the study report that obesity is the leading cause of hypertension increases the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, respiratory distress, gallbladder disease, surgical risk factors, and complications of during pregnancy, and psychosocial effects. Health insurance companies measure obese individual as those with body weight greater that 20%, and the amount of adipose tissue as compare to the muscle mass. Therefore, there are two types of obesity: hyperplastic are those characterized with t fat cells and hypertrophic are those characterized with the number of enlarge fat cells. The study finds that obesity in both white and black women is...
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