1. The answer is C, interval/ratio. The researchers analyzed the data as though it were interval/ratio level. They calculated the mean and standard deviation which is only appropriate for interval/ratio level data.
2. The mean post-test empowerment score for the control group is 97.12. This data is found explicitly in the chart of data given.
3. The baseline score mean is 14 and the post-test depression score mean is 13.36, meaning they were less depressed after completing the empowerment program. This is an expected finding because the researchers had hypothesized this decrease as a result of the program.
4. The mean baseline and post-test depression scores of the control group are both identical at 10.40. Because this is the control group, no change in depression score is expected, therefore this strengthens the validity of the research results when comparing the control group results to the experimental group results.
5. The group with the least amount of variability is the experimental empowerment post-test group, which has the lowest standard deviation of 7.28. The lower the standard deviation, the lower the variability because they are directly related.
6. Because the self-care self-efficacy experimental group’s baselines score has the highest standard deviation of 14.88 when compared to the empowerment variable, it has the greater dispersion.
7. The mean (X) is a measure of central tendency of a distribution, while the SD is a measure of the dispersion or variability of its scores. Both X and SD are descriptive statistics.
8. The mean severity for renal disease for the research subjects was a score of 6.74 as shown by the relevant study results. The information also says the SD is 2.97, which tells the dispersion of the renal disease severity scores. There is no significant difference in severity scores between the control and experimental groups. It is important that the patient’s show a...