1. The answer is C, interval/ratio. The researchers analyzed the data as though it were interval/ratio level. They calculated the mean and standard deviation which is only appropriate for interval/ratio level data.

2. The mean post-test empowerment score for the control group is 97.12. This data is found explicitly in the chart of data given.

3. The baseline score mean is 14 and the post-test depression score mean is 13.36, meaning they were less depressed after completing the empowerment program. This is an expected finding because the researchers had hypothesized this decrease as a result of the program.

4. The mean baseline and post-test depression scores of the control group are both identical at 10.40. Because this is the control group, no change in depression score is expected, therefore this strengthens the validity of the research results when comparing the control group results to the experimental group results.

5. The group with the least amount of variability is the experimental empowerment post-test group, which has the lowest standard deviation of 7.28. The lower the standard deviation, the lower the variability because they are directly related.

6. Because the self-care self-efficacy experimental group’s baselines score has the highest standard deviation of 14.88 when compared to the empowerment variable, it has the greater dispersion.

7. The mean (X) is a measure of central tendency of a distribution, while the SD is a measure of the dispersion or variability of its scores. Both X and SD are descriptive statistics.

8. The mean severity for renal disease for the research subjects was a score of 6.74 as shown by the relevant study results. The information also says the SD is 2.97, which tells the dispersion of the renal disease severity scores. There is no significant difference in severity scores between the control and experimental groups. It is important that the patient’s show a...

...Name:_ Class: _GCU_HLT-362 V________________
Date: ___
□ EXERCISE 31 Questions to be Graded
1. What are the two groups whose results are reflected by the t ratios in Tables 2 and 3?
Table 2 reflects the Health Promotion Program’s effects on cardiovascular risk factors and Table
3 is reflective of the program’s effects on health behavior.
2. Which t ratio in Table 2 represents the greatest relative or standardized difference between the pretest and 3 months outcomes? Is this t ratio statistically significant? Provide a rationale for your answer.
3. Which t ratio listed in Table 3 represents the smallest relative difference between the pretest and 3 months? Is this t ratio statistically significant? What does this result mean?
The T-ratio is 0.80. This value is not statistically significant since it is less than the tabulated value of 1.96. This is indicative of the program having no effect on health behaviors.
4. What are the assumptions for conducting a t-test for dependent groups in a study? Which of these assumptions do you think were met by this study?
Several assumptions for t-test for dependent/matched groups in a study are applied. First, it is assumed that the difference between the two groups of the dependent t-test is approximately or normally distributed. Second, the dependent variable is interval or ratio (continuous in nature). Third, any independent variable consists of one group or two “matched pair” groups. Finally, all...

...Exercise16: Mean and Standard Deviation
1. The null hypothesis would be: There is no difference in levels of empowerment, self-care and efficacy, or depression in patients with end stage renal disease that have attended an empowerment program.
2. The average baseline depression score in the experimental group was 14.00. This value is pulled from the Mean Column
3. The baseline number for the self-care and efficacy patients was 89.56, where posttest numbers are 96.00. This should be an expected number as the patient should score higher post program.
4. The experimental group showed a decrease from a baseline of 14.00 to a 13.36. The Control group stayed the same when comparing baseline to Post Test.
5. The mean is 101.08 and is found in the total column, under the empowerment baseline posttest section.
6. The biggest change in mean in the Empowerment group, with a difference of 6.64. The study shows pre and post number for ESRD patient’s that attended an empowerment program, so one would expect that the greatest increase would be in empowerment.
Post Test Scores – Baseline score = Difference 105.04-98.40=6.64
7. According to the Relevant Study Results, the average time that each patient was on dialysis was 52.56 months.
8. The answer would be B, 96 was the average self-care self-efficacy posttest score for the experimental group.
9. The control groups SD of 8.99 indicates the standard deviation....

...
HLT 362 Module 1 Exercise16
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1- The researchers analyzed the data they collected as though it were at what level of measurement? (Your choices are: Nominal, Ordinal, Interval/ratio, or Experimental)
2- What was the mean posttest empowerment score for the control group?
3- Compare the mean baseline and posttest depression scores of the experimental group. Was this an expected finding? Provide a rationale for your answer.
4- Compare the mean baseline and posttest depression scores of the control group. Do these scores strengthen or weaken the validity of the research results? Provide a rationale for your answer.
5- Which group’s test scores had the least amount of variability or dispersion? Provide a rationale for your answer.
6 - Did the empowerment variable or self-care self-efficacy variable demonstrate the greatest amount of dispersion? Provide a rationale for your answer.
7 - The mean (X ̅) is a measure of a distribution while the SD is a measure of its scores. Both X ̅ and SD are statistics.
8 - What was the mean severity for renal disease for the research subjects? What was the dispersion or variability of the renal disease severity scores? Did the...

...1. The researchers analyzed the data they collected as though it were at what level of measurement?
The answer is C, which is interval/ratio scale.
2. What was the mean posttest empowerment score for the control group?
The mean posttest empowerment score for the control group was 97.12
3. Compare the mean baseline and posttest depression scores of the experimental group. Was this an expected finding? Provide a rationale for your answer.
The data shows that there was an improvement in the mean baseline and posttest depression scores of the experimental group. The baseline mean depression score was 14.00, while the post-test was down to 13.36. This study showed that after six weeks from initiating the program, there was an improvement in the participant’s depression, which was the expected finding.
4. Compare the mean baseline and posttest depression scores of control group. Do these scores strengthen or weaken the validity of the research results? Provide a rationale for your answer.
The mean baseline and post-test depression scores of the control group were both 14.40, which means that there was no change in the control group’s depressions. This study strengthen the validity of the research results, because this study proved that the empowerment program did help improve the experimental group’s depression, as opposed to the control group’s depression that remained the same after six weeks of study.
5. Which groups’ test scores had the least amount of...

...Workbook Exercises11 & 16
Grand Canyon University
Complete Exercises 11 and 16 in Statistics for Health Care Research: A Practical Workbook, and submit as directed by the instructor (e.g., as a Microsoft Word document in the LoudCloud classroom).
In order to receive full credit on calculated answers, please show your work. (Use Word's equation editors, etc., and/or provide a short written description as to how you obtained the final result.)Exercise 11 (4 points per question)
1. What demographic variables were measured at least at the interval level of measurement?
Age, Income, Length of labor, Return to work, and Number of hours working per week.
2. What statistics were used to describe the length of labor in this study? Were these appropriate?
Sample size, Median and Standard Deviation were used to describe the length of labor in the experimental group and Population, Median, and Standard Deviation were used to describe length of labor in the control group. Because length of labor is considered an interval level of measurement, using these statistics were appropriate.
3. What other statistic could have been used to describe the length of labor? Provide a rationale for your answer.
I believe mean could have been used to describe length of labor. By calculating the mean, you can figure out the average length of labor of the population.
4. Were the distributions of scores similar for the experimental and...

...Name: Suma Pole
Class: 362V (Work book Exercises 11 and 16)
06/12/15
Exercise 11: Using Statistics to Describe a Study sample.
1. What demographic variables were measured at the interval level of measurements?
Age, Income, Length of labor, Return to work and number of hours working per week.
2. What statistics were used to describe the length of labor in this study?
Mean and standard deviation were used to describe the length of labor. These were appropriate since mean and standard deviation can be calculated on an interval level of measurement.
3. What other statistics could have been used to describe the length of labor? Provide a rationale for your answer?
Range could also be used to describe the length of labor since this statistic can be used on interval data with no natural zero point.
4. Were the distributions of scores similar for the experimental and control groups for the length of labor? Provide a rationale for your answer.
The distribution of scores was similar for the experimental and control groups for length of labor. The experimental group had a mean of 14.63 hours and the control group had a mean of 12.79 hours which is a difference of less than 2 hours with a SD of 7.78 for experimental and 7.2 for control.
5. Were the experimental and the control groups similar in their type of feeding? Provide a rationale for your answer.
The experimental and control groups were similar in the type of...

...
HLT 362 Module 4 Exercise 36
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The researchers found a significant difference between the two groups (control and treatment) for change in mobility of the women with osteoarthritis (OA) over 12 weeks with the results of F(1, 22) 9.619, p 0.005. Discuss each aspect of these results.
State the null hypothesis for the Baird and Sands (2004) study that focuses on the effect of the GI with PMR treatment on patients’ mobility level. Should the null hypothesis be rejected for the difference between the two groups in change in mobility scores over 12 weeks? Provide a rationale for your answer.
The researchers stated that the participants in the intervention group reported a reduction in mobility difficulty at week 12. Was this result statistically significant, and if so at what probability?
If the researchers had set the level of significance or = 0.01, would the results of p 0.001 still be statistically significant? Provide a rationale for your answer.
If F(3, 60) 4.13, p 0.04, and = 0.01, is the result statistically significant? Provide a rationale for your answer. Would the null hypothesis be accepted or rejected?
Can ANOVA be used to test proposed relationships or predicted correlations between...

...EXERCISE 29 Questions to be Graded
1. Were the groups in this study independent or dependent? Provide a rationale for your answer.
The two groups were independent since they were formed based on gender with no intent to match subjects on any variable. The men and women selected didn’t share any relationship or live in the same location.
2. t = −3.15 describes the difference between women and men for what variable in this study? Is this value significant? Provide a rationale for your answer.
In this study, t= -3.15 describes the mental health variable. It is significant because they are the variables being tested since the p value is 0.002 and the alpha is 0.05, the difference can cause the null hypothesis to be rejected.
3. Is t = −1.99 significant? Provide a rationale for your answer. Discuss the meaning of this result in this study.
It is significant because the p= 0.049 value is smaller than the alpha that was set for this study (0.05). This means that there is a significant difference in the results obtained from men and women and this supports the experiment that was performed.
4. Examine the t ratios in Table VI. Which t ratio indicates the largest difference between the males and females post MI in this study? Is this t ratio significant? Provide a rationale for your answer.
The t ratio for mental health is t= -3.15, which indicates the largest difference between men and women post MI in this study. It is significant because it causes...