Analysis of Carbons

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Analysis of Hydrocarbons
Leoncito, Alyssa Lynn, Libatique, Keith Martin P., Ligot, Nestlhyn B.*, Lim, Jamie Therese T. Department of Psychology, University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines Abstract
Four organic samples: hexane, cyclohexene, napthalene and toulene were given to serve as reference standards to characterize and distinguish four unknown given samples. Nitration, bromine and basic oxidation testswere conducted to classify the different samples from being an aliphatic, or aromatic, saturated or unsaturated and alkylated or non-alkylated hydrocarbons. The physical state and color were noted by simple physical observation. The unknown samples were characterized and differentiated by using the three different tests to distinguish hydrocarbon from each type. Introduction

There are millions of organic compounds that are already known. One type of which is the mostcommon and the simplest type that is only composed of hydrogen and carbon atom, the hydrocarbons.All hydrocarbons are insoluble in water due to their relatively non-polarity. Instead, they mix withrelatively non-polar solvents like dichlromethane or carbon tetrachloride. Hydrocarbons can be characterize on the way in which carbon atoms are connected, the aliphaticand aromatic hydrocarbons. Aliphatic hydrocarbons, from the Greek word aleiphar (fat or oil), are longcarbon-chain molecules which are usually found in animal fats and plant oils. In aliphatic hydrocarbons,carbon atoms are joined together in straight chains, branched chains, or non-aromatic rings. Aliphatics undergo free-radical substitution reactions. The aromatic hydrocarbon or arene, are characterized byhaving molecular structures which are called benzene rings. They are characterized by ionic substitution reactions due to their opposition to addition reactions because of their aromacity, the possession of aclosed loop of electrons and a manifestation of cyclic delocalization and low reactivity of resonance. Another means of classification rely upon the type of bonding that exists between carbons.Saturated hydrocarbons contains only single carbon-carbon bonds and unsaturated hydrocarbons that contains two or more C-C bonds, or benzene-like rings. Saturation refers to the fact that each carbonhas its maximum number of bonds to hydrogen. Alkanes, with the general formula of CnH2n+2, andcycloalkanes, where the carbon atoms are joined up in a ring and with the general formula of CnH2n,are classified as saturated with a single C-C bond. On the other hand, unsaturated hydrocarbons arehighly reactive and undergo addition reactions to their multiple bonds. Alkenes, with double C=C bondsand a general formula of CnH2n, and Alkynes, which have triple bonded C atoms and a general formulaof CnH2n-2, are classified as unsaturated hydrocarbons. The presence of a double or triple bond in themolecule opens up many more possibilities for isomerism compared with single bonded molecules.Hydrocarbons can also be grouped if there is an alkyl substitution that has happened to thecompound. Alkylated hydrocarbons undergo alkylation in which there is a transfer of an alkyl group from one molecule to another. Hydrocarbons that do not undergo alkylation are called non-alkylatedhydrocarbons. The samples that were given to serve as standards are hexane, cyclohexene, naphthalene and toluene. Hexane is an organic compound made of the elements carbon and hydrogen. It is primarily produced through the refining of petroleum. It has many uses, including that of a vegetable solvent, cleaning agent, and thermometer liquid. Its toxicity is considered to be relatively low, though the effects of extremely high exposure can include irritation, dizziness, headache, and slight nausea. Hexane’s physical properties are well known. It is most commonly encountered as a colorless liquid. It has a melting point of roughly -139.54°F (-95.3°C) and a boiling point of 154.04°F (67.8°C). It has a molar mass of 86.18 grams per mole (g/mol)....
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