Sch4U Final Exam Study Note

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Chemistry Exam Study Sheet

Organic Chemistry
• Study of compounds to which carbon is the principal element. • Carbon is special because it has 4 bonds.

Functional Groups
• Organic substances are organized into organic families. • Organic Families – group of organic compounds with common structural features. o Each family has a recognizable physical property and a specific structural arrangement. o Each combination is referred to as a functional group. o Even though many functional groups exist, they essentially consist of only 3 main components. ▪ Carbon- carbon multiple bonds

▪ Single bonds between a carbon atom and a more electronegative atom. ▪ Carbon atom double bonded to an oxygen atom

• Hydrocarbons are organic compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms. • There are 3 types of aliphatic hydrocarbons:
o Alkanes
▪ A hydrocarbon with only single bonds between carbon atoms. ▪ General formula is Cn H2n+2
▪ All alkanes have the ending –“ane”
▪ Any alkyl branches in the carbon chain have the suffix –“yl” ▪ The name of a branched alkane must indicate the point of attachment of the branch. o Alkenes
▪ A hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon – carbon double bond. ▪ General formula is Cn H2n
o Alkynes
▪ A hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon – carbon triple bond. ▪ General formula is Cn H2n-2
▪ In all of these hydrocarbons, the carbon – carbon backbone may form a straight chain, a branched chain or a cyclic structure. ▪ A hydrocarbon branch that is attached to the main structure of the molecule is called an alkyl group. ▪ When methane is attached to the main chain of a molecules it is called a methyl group, -CH3 • Prefix of naming hydrocarbons are:

o Meth – 1 carbon
o Eth – 2 carbon
o But – 3 carbon
o Pent – 4 carbon
o Prop – 5 carbon
o Hex – 6 carbon
o Hept – 7 carbon
o Oct – 8 carbon
o Non – 9 carbon
o Dec – 10 carbon
o IUPAC – International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry o Aromatic hydrocarbon – a compound with a structure based on benzene; a ring of six carbon atoms o Isomer – a compound with the same molecular formula s another compound but a different molecular structure. o Cyclic hydrocarbon – a hydrocarbon whose molecules have a closed ring structure. o Aliphatic hydrocarbon – a compound that has a structure based on straight or branched chains or rings of carbon atoms; does not include aromatic compound such as benzene.

• Aromatic Hydrocarbons
o Basically aliphatic hydrocarbons that are attached to benzene. o [pic]
o Benzene is a resonating structure (switches back and forth)

Reaction of Hydrocarbons
• All hydrocarbons readily burn in air to give off carbon dioxide and water. • It also releases large amounts of energy.
• Alkanes are usually less reactive than alkenes and alkynes. • This is due to double and triple bonds.
• Reaction of Alkanes
o The single covalent bonds between carbon atoms are difficult to break. o This makes alkanes rather unreactive.
o Will go through combustion reaction if ignited in air. • Substitution of Reactions:
o A reaction in which a hydrogen atom is replaced by shorter atoms o The halogen atoms used are F2, Cl2 or Br2 (Diatomic compound) o Alkanes go through substituion.
o Types:
▪ Alkane + Halogen ( Organic Halide
o This is a substitution reaction by an alkane.
• Reaction of Alkanes and Alkynes:
o Alkenes and alkynes show greater chemical reactivity due to double and triple bonds. o The reaction of alkanes and alkynes is called an addition reaction. o 4 Types of addition reaction:

▪ Halogenation (with Br2 or Cl2)
• [pic]
▪ Hydrogenation:
• [pic]
▪ Hydrohalogenation (with hydrogen...
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