Amul’s Supply Chain Management
AMUL is a dairy cooperative in the western India that has been primarily responsible, through its innovative practices, for India to become the world’s largest milk producer. The distinctive features of this paradigm involves managing a large decentralized network of suppliers and producers, simultaneous development of markets and suppliers, lean and efficient supply chain, and breakthrough leadership. Every day Amul collects 447,000 litres of milk from 2.12 million farmers , converts the milk into branded, packaged products, and delivers goods worth Rs 6 crore (Rs 60 million) to over 500,000 retail outlets across the country. To implement their vision while retaining their focus on farmers, a hierarchical network of cooperatives was developed, this today forms the robust supply chain behind GCMMF¶s endeavors. The vast and complex supply chain stretches from small suppliers to large fragmented markets. Management of this network is made more complex by the fact that GCMMF is directly responsible only for asmall part of the chain, with a number of third party players (distributors, retailersandlogisticssupport providers)playinglargeroles.Managingthissupplychain efficientlyis criticalas GCMMF's competitive position is driven by low consumer prices supported by a low cost system of providing milk at a basic, affordable price. Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation (GCMMF)
GCMMF is India's largest food products marketing organisation. It is a state level apex body of milk cooperatives in Gujarat, which aims to provide remunerative returns to the farmers and also serve the interest of consumers by providing quality products, which are good value for money. GCMMF markets and manages the Amul brand. The distribution network
Amul products are available in over 500,000 retail outlets across India through its network of over 3,500 distributors. There are 47 depots with dry and cold warehouses to buffer inventory of the entire range of products. GCMMF transacts on an advance demand draft basis from its wholesale dealers instead of the cheque system adopted by other major FMCG companies. This practice is consistent with GCMMF's philosophy of maintaining cash transactions throughout the supply chain and it also minimizes dumping. Wholesale dealers carry inventory that is just adequate to take care of the transit time from the branch warehouse to their premises. This just-in-time inventory strategy improves dealers' return on investment (ROI). All GCMMF branches engage in route scheduling and have dedicated vehicle operations. Largest Cold Chain
AMUL has the largest cold chain network in India (i.e. 18000 refrigerators) as compared to any other company. The chemical components of milk are water, SNF and solids. Milk is very perishable product so it has to be consumed within 24 hours. In order to avoid wastage AMUL converts the milk in to SNF and milk solids by evaporating the water, which comprises up to 60-70% of milk contents. This is possible only if the distribution channel right from the producer to the consumer is well organized. It will be surprising to know that AMUL makes even the Sarpanch to eat pizza i.e. it supplies pizzas even to rural market. The Business Model
From the very beginning, in the early 1950s, AMUL adopted the network as the basic model for long-term growth. The network explicitly includes secondary services to the farmer-suppliers. Several of the entities in the network are organized as cooperatives linked in a hierarchical fashion. Customers: In comparison with developed economies, the market for dairy products in India is still in an evolutionary stage with tremendous potential for high value products such as ice cream, cheese etc. The distribution network, on the other hand, is quite reasonable with access to rural areas of the country. Traditional...