Реферат на тему:
«American English: major dialects and variations»
Выполнила: студентка 2 курса Contents
Local Dialects in the USA10
Spelling in American English11
(McDavid, 1971). As early as the late 19th century, linguists (e.g., Hempl, 1896) began to classify the regions of the United States based on their strong differences in English language usage and pronunciation (see Atwood, 1971). American English or United States English is the dialect of English language spoken in the United States. It is different in some ways from other variations of English, such as British English. Historically, many types of American English can be found in old local dialects of England. Many people today know about American English even if they live in a country where another form of English is spoken. This is partly because people hear and read American English via the media, for example CNN television, and the Internet, where the most common form of English is American English. Because people all over the world hear and read American English as well as other versions of English we may find that the English language starts to take on (acquire) new words. English has been changing for centuries, adding new words to its vocabulary. For example, the English language spoken in India, which has more than one billion people, will add more American English words to go along with its British English base and many other words adopted into English usage in India from any of the 200+ Indian languages. Sometimes people will learn American English as it is spoken in America - for example, in telephone call centers in India and other places, people often learn American English in order to sound more like their customers who call India from America. These people often continue to use American English in everyday life.Many word definitions are different in American English. Regional dialects in the United States typically reflect the elements of the language of the main immigrant groups in any particular region of the country, especially in terms of pronunciation and vernacular vocabulary. Scholars have mapped at least four major regional variations of spoken American English: Northern, Southern, Midland, and Western. After the American Civil War, the settlement of the western territories by migrants from the east led to dialect mixing and levelling, so that regional dialects are most strongly differentiated in the eastern parts of the country that were settled earlier. Localized dialects also exist with quite distinct variations, such as in Southern Appalachia and New York. American English
The variety of English spoken in the USA has received the name of American English. The term variant or variety appears most appropriate for several reasons. American English cannot be called a dialect although it is a regional variety, because it has a literary normalized form called Standard American, whereas by definition given above a dialect has no literary form. Neither is it a separate language, as some American authors, like H. L. Mencken, claimed, because it has neither grammar nor vocabulary of its own. From the lexical point of view one shall have to deal only with a heterogeneous set of Americanisms. An Americanism may be defined as a word or a set expression peculiar to the English language as spoken in the USA. E.g. cookie 'a biscuit'; frame house 'a house consisting of a skeleton of timber, with boards or shingles laid on'; frame-up...