Alcohol and Domestic Violence

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Alcohol and Domestic Violence
Samantha Robbins
Instructor Pilotti
December 17, 2012

The usage of alcohol and domestic violence studies has been studies for years. There have been different conclusions drawn as to the harm that is or can be caused by consumption depending on the studies or types of studies. The World Health Organization (WHO), an international agency, defines violence as "the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, or another person, or against a group or community, that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation" (World Health Organization, 2002). When that violence is in the home it is even more devastating as our homes are intended to be safe havens away from anything harmful and supposed to be places of refuge. The belief that the usage of alcohol intensifies and alters violence causing it to be more intense and harmful is of great importance within the current times. Linking alcohol usage to domestic violence allows us, once a determination is made of causation, to initiate changes that can be advantageous and effective helping to break the cycle that is so prevalent. STUDY 1

In study one (“Alcohol and intimate partner violence: Do we have enough information to act?) the test reviews the years of 1966-2004 (Gil-González, 2006). The question asked is does the magnitude of association between male alcohol consumption directly associate to intimate partner violence? This test is extensive in its area of study as it spans multiple generations. The article that was published in 2006 specifically addresses that the association is controversial and the study is tenacious in choosing inclusion and exclusion of factors. The results of these studies, if shown to be of consequence, help to identify where more funding should be placed as well as the types of counseling that may be beneficial to not only the abused but the perpetrator as well. METHOD

An empirical study of 8 data bases ranging from Social and Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Medicine, and Life Sciences was used to come up with a mere 22 studies within the frame of exclusion and inclusion used. Specific words such as battered women and alcohol, violence against women and alcohol, domestic violence and alcohol, gender-based violence and alcohol, and gender violence and alcohol. (Gil-González, 2006) were the only ones used within the study. Once chosen the 22 studies were systematically reviewed within the empirical data to show degree of alcohol consumption, how alcohol consumption was measured, epidemiological design used and sampling method, control of confounding variables; and, possible biases within the studies following the operative definitions given within the Dictionary of epidemiology (4th edition) (Last, 2001). RESULTS

The data collected was placed within excel format and statistically analyzed using the 2x2 or chi-square test to show if the independent variable of alcohol was a factor. A summary meta-analysis was performed and a funnel plot figured as well as a forest plot to rule out or include study bias through usage of published studies used. Spearman’s rank correlation was also calculated to help determine if the grey literature was a portion of the study. Only 22 of the papers made it to this study out of a total of 1012 due to inclusion and exclusion factors. Therefore 98% were ignored. 12 of the 22 did not use alcohol and violence as the primary hypothesis while part of the 98% that were not used included other factors such as children and men and violence. Only 2 of the 22 used direct usage of alcohol as a factor. Due to plotting factors and usage of older studies a direct correlation between alcohol consumption and domestic violence was not considered to be strong as well as the possibility of publication bias usage in this article. DISCUSSION

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