Definition of Agriculture:
The art or science of cultivating the ground, including the harvesting of crops, and the rearing and management of livestock; tillage; husbandry ; farming. Introduction:
Agricultural sector is the backbone of our economy. But the growth of agriculture in Pakistan is facing a lot of problems. Due to various causes, per acre yield is very low in Pakistan as compare to other developed countries. From time Immemorial, agriculture has been the major occupation of the people of Pakistan. Even today agriculture is a major sector and occupies a very important place in the economy of Pakistan. It not only provides food for our growing population but is a source of raw materials for our principal industries as well as a source of foreign exchange for our government. Although it is developing rapidly and becoming industrialized. Pakistan is very much agricultural country. Agriculture has been carried on in the fertile plain of the Indus for thousands of years. However agricultural methods have been changing over the year. Today many farmers still use basic tools on the land but many new and modren machines are also used. Modern improvements include the use of tractors, threshers, improved seeds, insecticides, pesticides, and fertilizer. Irrigation methods have also been improved. All the workers in Pakistan make up the workforce. Agriculture employed 66per cent of the total workforce in 1950-51, but by 1999-2000 this figure had dropped to 47.3 per cent. This does not mean that agricultural production has dropped. It means that on large farms machines are doing the work instead of many people. It also means that people are working in many other jobs too. Over the years, the produce from farms and the area on which crops are grown have both increased. Pakistan lies in a semi-arid subtropical region. It is in the north east of the world; that is just above tropic of cancer i.e. 23.5oN. Its dimensions are 240 30N to 370 N and 610 E to 750 E approximately. Pakistan has 1046km coastline in the south that impacts its climate and agriculture. 32% of our gross domestic products belong to this sector. It engages 53% of our employed labour. About 75% of our people are engaged directly or indirectly with this profession. A large part (about 10%) of Pakistan's exports is made up of primary commodities, including the major cash crops. In addition to this major large scale industries like cotton textile and sugar etc. as well as medium and small scale agro-based and cottage industries are directly dependent on this sector for their raw materials.
The magnanimity of the agricultural problems in Pakistan has undoubtedly crippled the economy. In 1947, agricultures contribution of GDP was 53% that has shrunken down to 21% last year. Pakistan has great agricultural potential because of its alluvial soils. However, it is producing almost 50% below its potential. Total land area of Pakistan is 96.9% and 3.1% is constituted of water bodies. Total cropped area of Pakistan is 23.04 million hectors. 90% of the land is irrigated and only remaining 10% is rain fed. In Pakistan, Intensive Subsistence Farming is largely practiced Use of fertilizers and pesticides; and techniques of crop rotation are practiced widely in order to have larger yield. Putting Agriculture in Perspective: Some Basic Facts of Rural Areas Poverty in the rural areas is significantly higher
than in the urban areas.
68% of the Pakistan's population lives in rural
60% of Pakistan's rural poor are landless.
45% are non- agricultural households
With a little developed Non Farm Sector the overwhelming burden is on the agriculture sector The highest incidence of poverty is in the zones that rely the most on crop incomes.
Sources of Income and Rural Poverty
• • On average crop income accounts for only about 50 percent of total rural incomes. • • Due to the unequal...