AGRICULTURE OF BANGLADESH
Shammi Akter 2418
Submission Date: June 3, 2010
Agriculture remains the most important sector of Bangladeshi economy, contributing 19.6 percent to the national GDP and providing employment for 63 percent of the population. Agriculture in Bangladesh is heavily dependent on the weather, and the entire harvest can be wiped out in a matter of hours when cyclones hit the country. According to the World Bank, the total arable land in Bangladesh is 61.2 percent of the total land area (down from 68.3 percent in 1980). Farms are usually very small due to heavily increasing population, unwieldy land ownership, and inheritance regulations. The 3 main crops—rice, jute, and tea—have dominated agricultural exports for decades, although the rice is grown almost entirely for domestic consumption, while jute and tea are the main export earners. In addition to these products, Bangladeshi farmers produce sugarcane, tobacco, cotton, and various fruits and vegetables (sweet potatoes, bananas, pineapples, etc.) for the domestic market. Tropical rainforest is important for maintaining the ecological balance in Bangladesh, and forestry contributes 1.9 percent to the GDP (1999-2000). The forest covers around 17 percent of the country's territory, or 2.5 million hectares (6.18 million acres). The timber is used by the construction industry as a source of building materials, by the printing industry as a source of materials to produce paper, and in the agricultural sector as a source of firewood. Commercial logging is limited to around 6.1 million cubic feet, and the government plans to plant more trees within the next 15 years.
Fishing is another important activity in the country, contributing 4.9 percent to the GDP (1999-2000) and providing 6 percent of the total export income. The overall fish production was around 1.6 million metric tons (1999-2000). Bangladesh mainly exports its shrimp to the international market.
Bangladesh is an agricultural country. The land of this country is very fertile and produces great varieties of crop.
Kinds: we may classify our crop into two-food crop and cash-crop.
The floodplains of Bangladesh are one of the regions where the rice plant was first domesticated around 5th millennium B.C. Bangladesh is also the place where rice production systems of various eco-seasonal characteristics evolved over centuries of rice farming experience and have been sustained. Rice is the staple for the 140 million Bangladeshis who obtain more than 70% of their total calorie from rice. The per capita rice consumption in Bangladesh is higher than that in any other country where rice is the staple. Two-thirds of Bangladesh populations are engaged in livelihood activities related to rice. Most rice is grown by small-holder farmers who produce rice for family consumption and for marketing the marginal surplus.
Fertile lands and hard-working farmers are the biggest assets of the rice production sector in Bangladesh. The farmers, although mostly land-poor, have shown that they can intelligently respond to the market stimulus as well as to opportunities offered by new technologies. By using modern production technologies, Bangladesh has recently achieved a nearly- self-sufficient status in rice. But the challenges of maintaining self-sufficiency through the coming decades are formidable as population is still growing at a significant rate and rice production growth has to be achieved with increasingly fewer resources in land, water, chemicals, and labor. The multiplicity of technical, socio-economic, and institutional issues that are entailed in the...