Acceleration Due to Gravity
Have you ever wondered why items always speed up when they are falling? Well it all has to do with acceleration due to gravity. Acceleration is the rate at which an object changes its velocity. Acceleration can be calculated by finding the change in velocity and dividing it over the time. The equation is: a= ∆v∆t (“Acceleration”) Acceleration is also a vector because it has a direction. The units of acceleration are typically m/s2. Gravity is the force that attracts an object toward the center of the earth, or toward any other physical body having mass. There is also the Inverse Square Law that proposes that the force of gravity acting between any two objects is inversely proportional to the square of the separation distance between the object's centers (F=Gmmr2). Gravity is the force that causes acceleration. When you use both of them you get acceleration due to gravity which is the acceleration for any object moving under the sole influence of gravity. On earth the accepted value of acceleration due to gravity is -9.8 m/s2 (“Free-fall”). Gravity changes in certain places such as it is lower at the equator and higher near the poles because the earth is a slightly slanted sphere due to its spin. Gravity also decreases with altitude, since greater altitude means greater distance from the Earth's center (Gravity). The following are experiments that help find acceleration due to gravity.

Free-fall Experiment| |
Materials| Triple-beam balance, tennis ball and Ping-Pong ball, string, and a meter stick.| Data| | Mass (g)| Times for 1st Drop (s)| Times for 2nd Drop(s)| Distance at 1st Drop (m)| Distance at 2nd Drop (m)| | Tennis Ball| | | | | | | |

| Ping-Pong Ball| | | | | | | |
Procedure| 1. Get a tennis ball and a Ping-Pong ball (or any other similar shaped objects). 2. Then, find the mass of each of the balls. 3. Take two stop watches and have the two people with stop watches stay at the...

...Determination of the AccelerationDue to Gravity
By A Good Student
Abstract
The accelerationdue to gravity, g, was determined by dropping a metal bearing and measuring the free-fall time with a pendulum of known period. The measured value is 9.706 m/s2 with a standard deviation of 0.0317, which does not fall within the range of known terrestrial values. Centrifugal forces and altitude variations cannot account for the discrepancy. The calculation is very sensitive to the measured drop time, making it the likely source of error.
(Short, sweet and to the point. I give the result, method and comment on its agreement or validity.)
Theory
(First, some background. Be sure to cover any non-numerical aspects of the theory that you wish to address. )
The accelerationdue to gravity is the acceleration experienced by an object in free-fall at the surface of the Earth, assuming air friction can be neglected. It has the approximate value of 9.80 m/s2, although it varies with altitude and location. The gravitational acceleration can be obtained from theory by applying Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation to find the force between the Earth and an object at its surface. Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation for the force between two bodies is
(You may write the equations in by hand.)
where m1...

...this experiment is to measure acceleration on a freely falling object assuming the only force acting on the object is gravitational force.
Theory
All dense objects in free fall have the same acceleration, which is known as the accelerationdue to gravity. The value of accelerationdue to gravity is approximately 9.80 m/s2. In this experiment, a vertical stand with an electromagnet at the top for holding and then releasing of the falling body, called the plummet. The plummet falls between two vertical wires, a spark timer applies a high voltage across the two wires at uniform intervals of 1/60s. The resulting spark jumps the gaps between the plummet and the wires, passing through a strip of heat sensitive paper. The spark leaves a visible mark on the paper.
We then measure the distance between successive marks on the paper. Knowing the time interval between sparks, we can calculate a set of average velocities for the plummet using the definition:
v = Dx
Dt
It can be shown that the average velocity during any time interval is equal to the instantaneous velocity at the midpoint in time of the interval, provided that the acceleration is constant during the time interval. The set of average velocities described above may then be treated as a set of instantaneous velocities. Once velocities are known at definite times, we can...

...February 24, 2012
Lab #8: Newton’s Second Law and AccelerationDue to Gravity
Purpose:
To observe a few effects of constant force and varying mass, constant mass and varying force and varying both mass and force and relate them to Newton’s Second Law.
Apparatus:
Theory and Background:
Newton’s Second Law of Motion states that the acceleration of an object is produced by a net force that is directly proportional to the magnitude of the net force, in the same direction as the net force, and inversely proportional to the mass of the object.
Procedure:
We used Gate Timing with Acceleration software and photogate system to measure the time it takes for the glider to travel through both photogates. We had to level the air track by placing the cart at the middle of the track with the air blower on and adjusting the leveling screws on the legs of the track to get minimum movement of the cart. The cart should slowly oscillate back and forth by 10 cm to give more accurate data. The photogates were placed at least 50 cm apart and aligned so that the flag can pass through them without touching the photogates. We attached the hook and flag onto the cart and then attached the pulley to the end of the air track. A nylon line was attached to the hook of the cart and passed through the pulley with a hanger attached on the end. The hanging weight must not hit the floor before the cart flag passes completely...

...
physics honors
Accelerationdue to gravity by picket fence method
Varun Kumar Pd 7
Saumya Kapoor & Tonia Li
9/26/2014
INTRODUCTION
Acceleration is the increase or decrease in velocity. It can also be described as the rate of change in velocity. Acceleration is represented by the formula:
. In this experiment we look at a specific type of acceleration, Free-Fall. Any object that is being acted upon only by the force of gravity is said to be in a state of free fall. There are two important motion characteristics that are true of free-falling objects; Free-falling objects do not encounter air resistance and all free-falling objects (on Earth) accelerate downwards at a rate of 9.8 m/s2.
PROCEDURES & EQUPMENT
Equipment:
- Photogate
- Smart Timer
- Picket Fence
Procedures:
Turn on SmartTimerSet the timer to measure the time and the mode to fence
Drop the picket fence down in between the Photogate
DATA ANALYSIS
Data Table:
DISTANCE Time "t" Time^2 "t^2"
cm m 0 cm 0.00 m 0.000 s 0 s
5 cm 0.05 m 0.0618 s 0.00381924 s
10 cm 0.10 m 0.1002 s 0.01004004 s
15 cm 0.15 m 0.1306 s 0.01765636 s
20 cm 0.20 m 0.1567 s 0.02455989 s
25 cm 0.25 m 0.1789 s 0.03232804 s
30 cm 0.30 m 0.2009 s 0.04036081 s
35 cm 0.35 m 0.2203 s 0.04853209 s
Graph:
Normal
Linerized
CONCLUSION
After analyzing the data and linearizing the graph, I have reached the...

...the system of masses to move without an applied force or a frictional force. This experiment will measure the motion of an air cart attached to a known mass by string moving on an air track using kinematics and dynamics concepts. The kinematics concept of uniform accelerated motion and the dynamics concepts of Newton’s Second Law and systems of masses will be used. The equations relating to these concepts are: d ⃑= (v_i ) ⃑t+ 1/2 a ⃑t^2 and F_net=ma ⃑ . The accepted value ofaccelerationdue to gravity is .
In this activity, an air-cart’s motion will be graphically analyzed. A mass will be attached to the air-cart by a string and hung over pulley with the other end attached to an air-cart resting on a frictionless surface. The study of the motion of the system of masses will be used to determine the velocity of the masses from an analysis of the displacement versus time data. This velocity will then be used to calculate the acceleration of the system of masses and therefore the accelerationdue to gravity. A spark timer will mark the motion at a frequency of 10 Hz (10 dots/s) on a strip of paper called ticker tape....

...The AccelerationDue to Gravity
Experiment #2
Abstract:
In this experiment, we used a spark timer to record the motion of an object in freefell by running a strip of paper through it. We then analyzed this motion to find an experimental value for the acceleration of gravity. We found that our experimental values differed from the accepted value for gravity by less than ten percent, which can be attributed to experimental error.
Date Tables
Data Table 1: Experimental Data and Calculations Due to Gravity
Point
t (s)
x (m)
Δx (m)
v (m/s)
Δt (s)
1
0
0
0
--
0.025
2
0.025
0.018
0.018
0.72
0.025
3
0.05
0.0395
0.022
0.88
0.025
4
0.075
0.068
0.029
1.16
0.025
5
0.1
0.1
0.032
1.28
0.025
6
0.125
0.14
0.04
1.6
0.025
7
0.15
0.185
0.045
1.8
0.025
8
0.175
0.236
0.051
2.04
0.025
9
0.2
0.293
0.057
2.28
0.025
10
0.225
0.355
0.062
2.48
0.025
11
0.25
0.423
0.068
2.72
0.025
12
0.275
0.497
0.074
2.96
0.025
13
0.3
0.579
0.082
3.28
0.025
14
0.325
0.664
0.085
3.4
0.025
15
0.35
0.755
0.091
3.64
0.025
16
0.375
0.854
0.099
3.96
0.025
Data Table 1: Time, Displacement, Velocity
To calculate Δx, we used the following equation:
Plugging in our values:
To calculate average velocity, we used the following...

...Calculating for accelerationdue to gravity using a picket fence in free fall
R. Cajucom, J. Suarez, and J. Villanueva
Performed 9 September 2015; submitted 16 September 2015
Abstract-Limit the abstract to four to five sentences stating the following: (a) statement of the problem, (b) methodology, (c) pertinent results, and (d) conclusion. Avoid numbers and symbols in the abstract.
After you have written the abstract, write the title. In not more than 13 words, choose a title that would reflect your abstract. To do this you may use the “variable-method” structure, e.g. “Measuring a car’s acceleration using a pendulum.” Here the variable is the gravitational acceleration and the method is the simple pendulum. Another way is to use the “dependent-independent variable” structure, e.g. “Angular displacement of a pendulum in an accelerating car.” Here the dependent variable is the angular displacement of a pendulum and the dependent variable is the car’s acceleration. Note: do not mention any keyword in the title that you will never discuss in your report. A title is a promise that you must keep. (9)
I. INTRODUCTION
The main purpose of the introduction is to give a motivation for the problem in the laboratory experiment performed. There are many ways to do this. One way is to start with mention something familiar to your reader, then slowly lead him to something...

...
Acceleration of Gravity Using Smart Timers:
To calculate the acceleration of gravity using the Smart Timers
Steven Ge
AP Physics B1, Per. 7, JSerra Catholic High School
Advisor: Mr. Darling, Dana.
Sep 11, 2014
Abstract
The purpose of this lab is to calculate the acceleration of gravity using the Smart Timers. Drops of ball of equal size and start drops at one hundred centimeter height, the amount of time was counted used the Smart Timers. Repeat the same procedure ten times; the amount of times was counted used the Smart Timers.
After compared these data were compared, result is the data has about 0.01-second error. The most likely reason is the height is not constant, the each ball drops from approximately one hundred-centimeter height.
Theory
The height of a free falling object can be calculated using the following formula: Y = Y0 + V0t – 1/2 * gt2, Note: Y – Y0 =the height. Using this formula, it will be up to solve for “g” and show that formula: g = 2(Y – Y0)/ t2. Follow the formula Y – Y0 =the height, so the Y – Y0 = 100cm. Then using the times data that got from the tests. The result of calculates, it got the several different “g”, take an average. Throw out an extremely large or small value.
Hypothesis
This lab was designed to calculate the acceleration of gravity using the Smart Timers. The...

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