Abnormal Psychology Past and Present

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Abnormal Psychology Exam 1 Review

Chapter 1 Abnormal Psychology Past and Present:
What is abnormality? Patterns of psychological abnormality usually follow the four D’s: deviance, distress, dysfunction, and danger. What is the difference between abnormal behavior and psychological disorder? Abnormal behavior is behavior that is statistically infrequent while psychological disorder is behavioral, emotional, or cognitive dysfunctions that are unexpected in their cultural context and associated with personal distress or substantial impairment in functioning. What were the two major historical perspectives regarding the cause of abnormal behavior? The Somatogenic Perspective was the view that abnormal psychological functioning had physical causes and the Psychogenic Perspective was the view that the chief causes of abnormal functioning are psychological. What did the major historical figures in the study of abnormal behavior contribute? Hippocrates believed that abnormal behavior was caused by humors (four of them): yellow bile, black bile, blood, and phlegm. He also believed hysteria was caused by a wandering womb. Aretaeus believed in a continuum between normal and abnormal behavior. Soranus advocated for the humane treatment of the mentally ill. Galen believed in the psychological basis of abnormal behavior and that hysteria was not caused by a wandering womb. John Weyer was the founder of the modern study of psychopathology and believed that the mind was just a susceptible to illness as the body. Philippe Pinel, William Tuke, Benjamin Rush, and Dorethea Dix were all part of the reform and moral treatment movement in the nineteenth century. Kraepelin was responsible for the first modern system of classifying abnormal behavior. Kraft-Ebing found that syphilis caused general paresis so he injected it into people. Jean Charcot believed that hysterical disorders are the result of the degeneration of parts of the brain. Josef Breuer thought hypnotism could cure hysteria. Sigmund Freud studied the unconscious processes. How were people with psychological disorders treated over the years? In the stone ages, trephination was an ancient operation in which a stone instrument was used to cut away a circular section of the skull to release the evil spirits that sere supposedly causing the problem. Exorcism was also used to coax the evil spirits to leave a person’s body. Hippocrates, who believed that Humors were the cause of psychological abnormality, believed that a quiet life, a diet of vegetables, temperance, exercise, celibacy, and even bleeding, could reduce symptoms. From the Middle Ages to the 1800s, barbers performed treatments known as bloodletting. There were striped barber poles that patients would hold onto while being bled by a barber. During the sixteenth century asylums were a type of institution whose primary purpose was to care for people with mental illness. They were overflowing with people and patients became virtual prisoners and were held in filthy conditions with unspeakable cruelty. In the nineteenth century moral treatment became an approach to treating mental disorders, but declined in the 1850s when state hospitals popped up in Europe and the US. In the 1960s, deinstitutionalization was the releasing of hundreds of thousands of patients from public mental hospitals. Today, people with severe disturbances are often treated with psychotropic medications. They include antipsychotic drugs, which correct extremely confused and distorted thinking, antidepressant drugs, which lift the mood of depressed people, and antianxiety drugs, which reduce tension and worry. Outpatient care has now become the primary mode of treatment for people with severe psychological disturbance as well as for those with moderate problems. Today, when people do need institutionalization, they are usually given short-term hospitalization. The treatment picture for people with moderate psychological disturbances has been more...
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