Ice is transformed to water at 0°C when the energy of its molecules (particles) increases. Water is similarly transformed to vapor at 100°C (Fig.1). Much stronger zigzag motion of the particles separates and ionizes hydrogen and oxygen i.e. plasma comes into existence (above 13 000 K). Do all bodies fit one of these four states of matter? The answer is: no, e.g. the solar corona does not!
Fig. 1 The temperature scale. It starts at 0K. Is it infinite long or does it have a highest end? The solar corona-problem is about 60 years old. The temperature of the corona of 2MK is much higher than that of the Sun i.e. the corona does not obey the thermodynamic law that heat does not flow uphill (Lang). Moreover, the solar corona - which floats visibly during the solar eclipse as a pale green fire - does not fall onto the solar surface. Thousands of other solar filaments seem not to obey gravity, too. Also, since decades, nobody can understand that millions of sun masses can be ejected with almost light-velocity via jets against the extremely strong gravity of a black hole. This paper calls to mind that all these celestial bodies which do not seem to obey thermodynamics, gravity and many other physical laws - have a filament form. Now, this paper shows that they are not in the fourth but in a fifth state of matter. No complicated, forced, ad hoc models like magnetic tubes, magnetic beds, magnetic tornados, shock waves, interactions of two stellar winds, photon pressure, frozen-in magnetic fields are necessary but simply a new state of matter for all filaments and jets. Filaments and jets in the fourth state of matter contradict physics many hundred times but they clearly obey all laws of physics in the fifth state of matter. Spark, lightning, ion beam, mercury-filament (in mercury-lamps) and electron beam in TV have a characteristic cylinder-form with exact circular cross section, a well defined matter and a measurable particle-energy, however nobody asks in which state of matter they are? In mercury lamps, mercury ions fly from the fluid state into the filament and back into the fluid state. Are these mercury ions of the filament in no state of matter? Also the very similar - only larger - celestial filaments are often believed to be of plasma. It will be shown: terrestrial and celestial filaments do not consist of plasma. They are very similar because they are in the same fifth state of matter. Chandra discovered a World of wild Giants : jets are up to 7 million light-years long and of nearly light-velocity (3C236). The mass of the filament of the Centaurus galaxy-cluster is about 109 sun masses. Solid, liquid, gas and plasma bodies can be found in the temperature scale, where are these filaments, perhaps above 10 MK (in Coma cluster)? The answer is surprising for all scientists who naively believe in a non-electric Universe, because most of the celestial bodies cannot be found in the temperature scale. They are non-thermal bodies, they are in the fifth state of matter. WHEN THE HIGHEST TEMPERATURE IS TOO LOW
Up to now, the highest temperature has been remained hidden in supposed infinite energy-ranges of mysterious hypernovae, gamma ray bursts and unknown processes. We cannot imagine a limit. Celsius’s scale (1742) did not show a coldest or highest end (Fig.1). However, Kelvin´s scale (1851) had a natural coldest end at 0 K where the zigzag motion of the particles stops. Matter of a temperature of -1 K cannot exist (Fig.1) but does matter exist above 1010K, 1020K or even 1030K? Surprisingly, we can simply find a natural highest end below 1010K by taking the Stefan-Boltzmann law into account. The P power of the heat-emission at T temperature of all stars is: P = σ T4| (1)|
where σ is the heat-radiation constant (6.7×10-8 m-2 K-4). From its approximate 109K hot plasma, a supernova emits as much heat as a galaxy, according to equ.1. A hypothetic „hypernova of 1010 K would radiate...