5th State of Matter

Atom , Electric current , Electromagnetic radiation

The 5th state of matter
INTRODUCTION
Ice is transformed to water at 0°C when the energy of its molecules (particles) increases. Water is similarly transformed to vapor at 100°C (Fig.1). Much stronger zigzag motion of the particles separates and ionizes hydrogen and oxygen i.e. plasma comes into existence (above 13 000 K). Do all bodies fit one of these four states of matter? The answer is: no, e.g. the solar corona does not!

Fig. 1 The temperature scale. It starts at 0K. Is it infinite long or does it have a highest end? The solar corona-problem is about 60 years old. The temperature of the corona of 2MK is much higher than that of the Sun i.e. the corona does not obey the thermodynamic law that heat does not flow uphill (Lang). Moreover, the solar corona - which floats visibly during the solar eclipse as a pale green fire - does not fall onto the solar surface. Thousands of other solar filaments seem not to obey gravity, too. Also, since decades, nobody can understand that millions of sun masses can be ejected with almost light-velocity via jets against the extremely strong gravity of a black hole.  This paper calls to mind that all these celestial bodies which do not seem to obey thermodynamics, gravity and many other physical laws - have a filament form. Now, this paper shows that they are not in the fourth but in a fifth state of matter. No complicated, forced, ad hoc models like magnetic tubes, magnetic beds, magnetic tornados, shock waves, interactions of two stellar winds, photon pressure, frozen-in magnetic fields are necessary but simply a new state of matter for all filaments and jets. Filaments and jets in the fourth state of matter contradict physics many hundred times but they clearly obey all laws of physics in the fifth state of matter. Spark, lightning, ion beam, mercury-filament (in mercury-lamps) and electron beam in TV have a characteristic cylinder-form with exact circular cross section, a well defined matter and a measurable...
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