1. Define at least 5 key concepts underlying structures of cultures. Answer:
Speed of messages:
It is the matter of how long a message can be understood or how long does it take to understand a person. Messages interactions can be in different speeds depending upon culture.
The concept is different in different cultures, so a balance is necessary for interacting within each culture. It’s the matter of how much relevant information is in the message, and already understood by both sides. So we have context situations, like a message which contain lots of meaning without much information content in one hand, and low context like a message which may not contain all relevant information.
The space is different in different cultures. It’s the matter of what is I? For example, in office, some people have invisible boundaries in one meter. Actually people have a visible physical boundary and series of invisible boundaries
What is the opinion of time is very culturally dependent. There are many kinds of time systems in the world, but two are most important to international business. How many things are done at once? One thing: monochromatic; many: polychromatic. To Asian, several things can be done at once, but it is very difficult to American or European. For example, American and European will think about the schedule is very important, they care about when, how and where. But Asian will think about goal is the most important and they will do some adjust and increase of efficiency.
The mean is Path data takes from its original setting to its end users. In Low-context countries, such as USA, Canada, Israel, German-speaking countries and Scandinavia, information spreads slowly and bocused. But the Higher Context Cultures: China, Arab countries, Italy, Greece, Japan, Spain, Korea, India, Brazil and Russia information will spread rapidly. So the information flow is different in different cultures.
2. Define the 4 types of global organizations.
a. Ethnocentric corporations: the corporations are home-country-oriented. Ethnocentric managers believe that home-country nationals are more intelligent, reliable, and trustworthy than foreign nationals. b. Polycentric corporations: the polycentric firm establishes multinational operations on condition that host-country managers “do it their way”. Host-country nationals have high or absolute sovereignty over the subsidiary’s operations. The polycentric firm is a loosely connected group with quasi-independent subsidiaries as profit centers. c. Regiocentric corporations: these corporations capitalize on the synergistic benefits of sharing common functions across regions. A regiocentric corporation believes that only regional insiders can effectively co-ordinate functions within the region. d. Geocentric corporations: the geocentric system is highly interdependent. Subsidiaries are no longer satellites and independent city-states.the entire organization is focused on both worldwide and local objectives.
3. Discuss the Yin and Yang of managing in Asia – 200 words or more. Answer:
American management styles, almost universally, presuppose the importance of the individual. We value empowerment, proactive decision making, and ownership of the task. This style of management reflects our Western tradition of the power of rational control and the inherent equality of all people. Asian management styles typically subordinate the role of the individual to the greater demands of the group. The power of obligations and relationships and the respect for order are of greater importance in the East. In the West, efficiency and change often equal effectiveness; in the East, passive acceptance of what is, and the ability to perfect one's work with others within the existing conditions, might be a greater virtue - and the way to a smooth-running, successful organization. The Yin and Yang are contradiction and...
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