• The “effect approach” (or scientiﬁc approach) of communication research" – Reduces “cultural questions” to measurable and veriﬁable categories " – Depends on “rigidly objectivity”" – Serves advertisers and media organizations primarily" – Narrowly focuses on audience individual behavior, ignoring questions like “where are media industries taking us” " – Refuses to place the research in a broader social and historical context"
• Instead, historical and cultural approaches should be used to focus on the long-range effect of mass media."
• The “cultural approach” often uses methods such as audience ethnography and textual analysis, which has previously been used primarily in humanities (e.g. literary studies)." • The “effect approach”, or generally understood as the “communication studies”, uses methods such as survey research, content analysis and experiments."
• Originated in Europe, where an interpretive approach (as in literary criticism) is preferred to a scientiﬁc approach." • Inﬂuenced by Marxism: mass media operate primarily to justify and support the existing power at the expense of ordinary people " – Old-fashioned Marxists believed people were oppressed by those who owned the means of production, or the base." – Neo-Marxists believe people are oppressed by those who control the culture, or the superstructure."
• Its goal is to bring about change in government media policies or even fundamental change in media and cultural systems. "
• It emerged in the United States in 1930s when a group of scholars escaped to US from Nazi Germany, where Hitler effectively used mass media to control the minds of the public."
• These scholars analyzed products of mass culture within the context of cultural industries and focused on features of" – Commodiﬁcation" – Standardization " – Massiﬁcation "
• They believe cultural industries provide legitimation for capitalism and serve to integrate individuals into mass culture through “false consciousness”."
• Comment on the role of “cultural industries” in the functioning of modern societies" – Agents of socialization (positively presenting social norms)" – Mediators of political reality" – Maintaining the status quo and legitimating dominant power" • Systematically analyze and criticize mass-mediated culture"
Its distinction between high and low culture, and preference for high culture over low culture shows an elitist bias. " – Seeing mass culture as monolithic, duping a mass of consumers" – An idealistic view of “authentic art”"
Adorno and Horkheimer
The work of art in the age of mechanical reproduction, Walter Benjamin
BBC Modern Masters Series: Andy Warhol
Nor does the distinction recognize that audience may be active, may have their own reading of a text or even become a...