1. Define the terms anatomy and physiology, and explain their relationship using an example of a human structure with its corresponding function.
Anatomy: The branch of science concerned with the bodily structure of humans, animals, and other organisms, esp. as revealed by dissection.
Physiology: The branch of biology that deals with the normal functions of living organisms and their parts.
Anatomy and physiology are connected in the way of not being able to understand one without the other. For example, to understand your lungs functions of breathing through physiology, you have to understand the parts and structure of them (anatomy) such as the bronchial tree and alveoli.
2. List, in order from least to most complex, the levels of structural organization, discuss the relationship between the levels, and name an example at each level. 1. Chemical – Here, atoms combine to form molecular structures of organelles (carbon) 2. Organelle – Small structures of different purposes that come together to form cells (mitochondria) 3. Cells – the smallest units of all living things (prokaryotic) 4. Tissues – groups of similar cells with common functions (brain tissue) 5. Organ – A structure that is composed of two or more tissue types (liver) 6. Organ System – a group of organs that work together to accomplish a same goal (respiratory system) 7. Organism – the highest level of living things (human)
3. List the 11 organ systems of the human organism, name the major organs within each, and give a general function for each system. 1. Circulatory system, (heart, lungs, blood vessels), to transport nutrients and gasses to cells and tissues 2. Cardiovascular system, (heart, blood vessels, blood), to transport blood throughout the body 3. Lymphatic System, (lymph nodes and vessels, thymus, spleen), to support immunity 4. Digestive system, (mouth, stomach, intestines, rectum), breaks down food into energy 5. Endocrine system, (pituitary gland, pineal gland, hypothalamus, ovaries, testes, thyroid) maintains growth and homeostasis 6. Integumentary System, (skin, nails, hair, sweat glands), protects internal structure from damage, prevents dehydration, stores fat and produces vitamins/hormones 7. Muscular system, (muscles), enables movement of the body 8. Nervous system, (brain, spinal cord, nerves), monitors and coordinates internal organ function and responds the changes in the external environment 9. Reproductive system, (vagina, uterus, ovaries, testes, scrotum, penis), enables the production of offspring through sexual reproduction 10. Respiratory system, (lungs, nose, trachea, bronchi), provides the body with oxygen 11. Skeletal System, (bones, ligaments), supports and protects the body, gives it shape and form 12. Urinary/Excretory System, (kidneys, bladder, urethra), removes waste and maintains water balance in the body
4. Name the six life processes that distinguish living from non-living things.
Metabolism, Responsiveness, Movement, Growth, Differentiation, and Reproduction
5. Specify the five environmental needs required for life.
Suitable temperature, suitable atmosphere, liquid water, food, and oxygen.
6. Define the term homeostasis, what is involved in maintaining homeostasis, and explain how a homeostatic mechanism is regulated (i.e. negative feedback) by using an examples that you find.
Homeostasis - The tendency toward a relatively stable equilibrium between interdependent elements, esp. as maintained by physiological processes.
An example of how homeostasis works is when the body becomes too hot, a part of the brain registers this and then activates sweat glands to help lower its temperature. Another example would be when blood pressure falls, norepinephrine is released, causing blood vessels to constrict and increases heart rate.