Unit 1 Study Guide

Topics: Kidney, Abdomen, Heart Pages: 5 (1702 words) Published: September 20, 2013
1. Anatomy- study of the structure and shape of the body and its parts. Physiology- study of how the body and its parts work or function. The relationship between anatomy and physiology is that anatomy has to do with the structures and names of the body, while physiology has to do with the function and how the structure works. An example of their correspondence is the cardiovascular system, consisting of the heart and blood vessels (anatomy) and how the heart pumps oxygen, nutrients, and wastes through the body by the way of blood vessels and cardiovascular muscles (physiology).

2. The lowest level of structural organization is the chemical level, an example is atoms combining to form molecules. The next structural level is the cellular level, for example, molecules making up muscle cells. The next level of organization is the tissue level, which can be pictured as multiple similar muscle cells making up a muscle tissue. The fourth level of the structural organization is the organ level, which can represented by several layers of cardiac muscle making up the heart and blood vessels. Next, the heart and blood vessels combine to make up the cardiovascular system, making the 6th level of organization, the organ system level. Finally, all the organ systems in the body combine to make up the organism, completing the final level of structural organization, the organism level.

3. The 11 organ systems of the body are the integumentary system, the skeletal system, the muscular system, the nervous system, the endocrine system, the cardiovascular system, the lymphatic system, the respiratory system, the digestive system, the urinary system, and the reproductive system. The integumentary system consists of the skin, and its main function is to form a external body covering, protect deeper tissue from injury, synthesize vitamin D, and the location of cutaneous nerve receptors. The skeletal system consists of all the bones, cartilage, and joints in the body. Its main job is to protect and support the body organs, provide muscle attachment for movement, store minerals, and form blood cells. The muscular system consists of all the smooth, striated, cardiac, voluntary, and involuntary muscles in the body. Their main job is to allow locomotion, maintain posture, and produce heat. The nervous system consists of the brain, nerves, sensory receptors, and spinal cord. It is the fast acting control system, responds to internal and external change, and activates muscles and glands. The endocrine system consists of the pineal gland, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, thymus gland, adrenal gland, pancreas, testes, and ovaries. The system secretes regulatory growth hormones, and controls growth, reproduction, and metabolism. The cardiovascular system consist of the blood vessels and the heart. The cardiovascular system transports materials, like oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and wastes, through the body via blood pumped by the heart. The lymphatic system consists of all the lymph nodes and vessels in the body, and they return fluids to blood vessels, disposes of debris, and is involved in immunity. The respiratory system consists of the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchus, and the lungs. The digestive system consists of many parts, the oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and the anus. Its main functions are to break down food, allow for nutrient absorption into the blood, and eliminate indigestible material. The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. it eliminates nitrogenous wastes, maintains the acid-base balance, and regulates levels of water, minerals, and electrolytes. lastly, the reproductive system consists of the seminal vesicles, penis, prostate gland, vas deferens, testes, and socrum in the male, and the mammary glands, uterine tube, ovary, uterus, and vagina in the female. Its sole job is the production of offspring.

4. The six life...
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