1. DICHOTOMOUS RESPONSE
-items offer the respondent two alternatives to choose from (i.e. YES-NO, True-False)
Do you have provision for maternity leave?_____ Yes_____ No
Does the school provide health insurance?_____ Yes_____ No
2. MULTIPLE CHOICE
-items provide several alternatives
_____ Elementary Graduate
_____ High school Graduate
_____ College Graduate
_____ Ed.D. or Ph.D.
-provides a run-down of items and the respondent checks those that apply to them
What electrical-electronics appliances do you have?
_____ Record Player
_____ Washing Machine
_____ Flat Iron
4. RATING SCALES
-may come in various forms; it is where the respondents evaluates a particular product, certain attitudes, and other characteristics; it is where he expresses his perceptions or how he views something; commonly used rating scales are: numerical, graphic, and forced choice rating scale
a. Numerical Rating Scale – a respondent indicates his response in a scale of numbers ranging from 1 (not at all) to 7 (very much)
The teacher stimulates students interests.
Not at all Very Much
b. Graphic Rating Scale – similar to numerical rating scale except that the scale contains words rather than numbers
The instructor maintains classroom discipline.
Never Seldom Occasionally Frequently Always
c. Forced Choice Rating Scale – an item that presents the respondents with a series of choices and requires him to choose one over the other
Indicate the characteristic which best describes your teacher (choose only one)
_____ has sense of humor
_____ shares enthusiasm
_____ uses time efficiently
_____ maintains classroom discipline
The ranking item allows the researcher to determine responses of relative importance. The item usually contains a list of items and the respondent is asked to choose which item is the most important, second most important and so on.
Rank in order of priorities the concerns which should be attended to by the administration
_____ Dirty comfort rooms
_____ Tardiness of some personnel
_____ Student unrest
_____ Delayed honoraria
5. ATTITUDE SCALES
-measure the attitudes of respondents on certain issues; by scale, this means it is an empirical indicator; these attitude items intend to capture empirically the essential meaning of the issue at hand; the basic assumption here is that it is possible to discover attitudes by asking individuals to respond to a series of statements of preference; the commonly used are the Semantic Differential Scale and the Likert Scale
a. Semantic Differential – method of observing and measuring the psychological meaning of concepts; usually uses bipolar objectives on a seven-point rating scale
Welcomes Criticism ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Rejects Criticism
Good ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Bad
Too Much ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Very Little
b. Likert Scale – made up of a series of opinion statements about some issues. A person’s attitude is measured by asking him or her to indicate the extent or degree of agreement or disagreement (intensity).