Marvels in Manufacturing
* War of 1812 prompted a boom of American factories and the use of American products as opposed to British imports. * The surplus in American manufacturing dropped following the Treaty of Ghent in 1815. * The British manufacturers sold their products to Americans at very low prices. * Congress passed the Tariff of 1816 in order to protect the American manufacturers. * 1798-Eli Whitney came up with the idea of machines making each part of the musket so that every part of the musket would be the same. * By 1850-the principle of interchangeable parts caught on and it became the basis for mass-production. * Elias Howe- invented the sewing machine in 1846.
* The sewing machine gave a boost to northern industrialization. * Became the foundation of the ready-made clothing industry. * Laws of "free incorporation"- first passed in New York in 1848; businessmen could create corporations without applying for individual charters from the legislature. * Samuel F. B. Morse- invented the telegraph.
Workers and "Wage Slaves"
* Impersonal relationships replaced the personal relationships that were once held between workers. * Factory workers were forbidden by law to form labor unions to raise wages. * 1820s- many children were used as laborers in factories. * With Jacksonian Democracy came the rights of the laboring man to vote. * President Van Buren established the ten-hour work day in 1840. * Commonwealth vs. Hunt- Supreme Court ruling said that labor unions were not illegal conspiracies, provided that their methods were honorable and peaceful. Women and the Economy
* Farm women and girls had an important place in the pre-industrial economy, spinning yarn, weaving cloth, and making candles, soap, butter, and cheese. * Women were forbidden to form unions and they had few opportunities to share dissatisfactions over their harsh working conditions. * Catharine Beecher- urged women to enter the teaching profession. * The vast majority of working women were single.
* During the Industrial Revolution- families were small, affectionate, and child-centered, which provided a special place for women. Western Farmers Reap a Revolution in the Fields
* The trans-Allegheny region became the nation's breadbasket. * Liquor and hogs became the early western farmer's staple market items. * John Deere- produced a steel plow in 1837 which broke through the thick soil of the West. Highways and Steamboats
* Lancaster Turnpike- hard-surfaced highway that ran from Philadelphia to Lancaster; drivers had to pay a toll to use it. * 1811- the federal government began to construct the National Road, or Cumberland Road. It went from Cumberland, in western Maryland, to Illinois. Its construction was halted during the War of 1812, but the road was completed in 1852. * Robert Fulton- installed a steam engine and created the first steamboat. * The steamboat played a vital role in the opening and binding the West and South. "Clinton's Big Ditch" in New York
* Governor DeWitt Clinton- governor of New York who lead the building of the Erie Canal that connected the Great Lakes with the Hudson River in 1825; the canal lowered shipping prices and decreased passenger transit time. The Iron Horse
* The most significant contribution to the development of such an economy was the railroad. The first one appeared in 1828. * at first were opposed because of safety flaws and they took away money from the Erie Canal investors. Cables (Telegraphs), Clippers, and Pony Riders
* 1840s and 1850s- Yankee navel yards began to produce new crafts called clipper ships. * These ships sacrificed cargo room for speed
* able to transport small amounts of goods in short amounts of time * they faded away after steam boats were made better
* 1860-The Pony Express was established to carry mail from St. Joseph, Missouri to Sacramento,...
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