Study Notes: NHPA and Nutrients

Topics: Nutrition, Atherosclerosis, Diabetes mellitus Pages: 3 (508 words) Published: July 3, 2013
CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE
The main cause of most CVD’s is atherosclerosis which is the hardening of arteries from the build up of fat deposits on the blood vessel walls.

Nutritional risk factors:
* Saturated fat intake – contributes to build up of LDL cholesterol causing plaque in the arteries * Trans fat intake – contributes to build up of LDL cholesterol by reducing production of HDL cholesterol * Sodium intake - increases blood pressure and results in hypertension

Nutritional protective factors:
* High fibre intake - assists in regulating cholesterol levels (by binding to LDL cholesterol to prevent build up in arteries) which reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease * Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids – lowers LDL cholesterol and improves blood vessel functioning * Antioxidants – can prevent the build up of fatty acids in the arteries

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DIABETES MELLITUS

Nutritional risk factors:
* High GI foods – cause rapid glucose hits which result in overworking of the pancreas to produce insulin which, over time, results in insufficient insulin produced * Saturated fat intake – high levels of fat block the insulin receptors which makes the insulin ineffective and results in insulin resistance

Nutritional protective factors:
* Low GI foods – contributes to maintenance of steady blood glucose levels * Unsaturated fats (mono and poly) – don’t block insulin receptors * Fibre - Assists in regulating blood glucose levels. This can reduce the risk of glucose intolerance and diabetes. -------------------------------------------------

COLORECTAL CANCER

Nutritional risk factors:
* Saturated and trans fat – difficult for the body to digest

Nutritional protective factors:
* Fibre - Contributes to a healthy digestive system by assisting in the removal of waste in the digestive tract (absorbs water in intestine and adds softness and bulk to faeces – faster...
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