1:1 The Neolithic Revolution (10-13)
•Farming initially developed in the Middle East, the Fertile Crescent. Grains such as barley and wild wheat were abundant. Also, not heavily forested, and animals were in short supply, presenting a challenge to hunters. 10,000 BCE to 8,000 BCE. Notice: it took thousands of years for this “revolution” so not fast but profound for history. Agriculture was hard for many hunting and gathering peoples to adopt – lots of work. Those in agricultural communities developed diseases, which they became immune. The agricultural people would unintentionally infect the hunters. •Americas agriculture began as early as 5,000 BCE, especially in Central America and the northern part of South America. •“Prehistorical” – human patterns before the invention of writing •Metal working was useful in farming and herding societies. 4,000 BCE copper in the Middle East toolmakers (specialized job) would exchange tools for food from farmers. Around 3,000 BCE bronze (copper + tin) and 1500 BCE for iron (which we live in today). •Neolithic Age – New Stone Age between 8000 and 5000 BCE; period in which adaptation of sedentary agriculture occurred; domestication of plants and animals were accomplished.
•7000 BCE a Neolithic village, Catal Huyuk in southern Turkey had characteristics of a civilization between 6000 and 5000 BCE (religion and trade) but it did not become a “civilization” until 3500 BCE approximately. •Civilization – comes from the Latin term for city
•Characteristics of a civilization
owriting (contracts, treaties, taxing records, recipe for beer) opolitical structures
osocial structure (patriarchal, monarch, subjects)
• Four initial centers, clustered in key river valleys.
oMiddle East – Mesopotamia, Tigris & Euphrates
oEgypt – Nile
onorthwestern India – Indus, Harappa