1. Sociology- the study of human society and collective human behavior 2. Sociological Imagination- the ability to see the connections between our personal experience and the larger forces of history. 3. Social Institution- is a complex group of interdependent positions that, together, perform a social role and reproduce themselves over time. Ex: Duke University was once Normal College but changed its name but is still the same institution Ex: Legal systems, primary and secondary educational systems, educational testing services, wage labor market, and language. They shape every aspect of our behavior but will always be changing because of new things that we encounter. 4. Microsociology- seeks to understand local interactional contexts by including participant observations and in-depth interviews. Ex: They focus on face to face encounters and the types of interactions between individuals. 5. Macrosociology- generally concerned with social dynamics at a higher level of analysis—across the breadth of society. Statistical analysis is most typical for this type of research. Ex: Might investigate immigration policies or gender norms.
6. Culture- the sum of social categories and concepts we recognize in addition to our beliefs, behaviors, and practices. A set of beliefs, traditions, and practices. (Everything but nature) **symbols are DNA for culture** (“is the software”) Ex: Values, norms, beliefs, traditions, customs, worldviews, ideologies, rituals, music, art, images, symbols, texts, race, gender, class, inequality TWO DIVISIONS OF CULTURE:
A: Nonmaterial Culture- includes values, beliefs, behaviors, and social norms. B: Material Culture- is everything that is a part of our constructed, physical environment, including technology.
7. Ethnocentrism- the belief that ones own culture or group is superior to others and the tendency to view all other cultures from the perspective of one’s own. Ex: Some believed that non-westerners did not have souls and weren’t human. 8. Ideology- a system of concepts and relationships, an understanding of cause and effect. Ex: Buying a ticket in first class, business class, or coach comes with different amenities. First class tickets are bought so they don’t have to share restrooms for example with the coach class. If everyone hung out in first class then the system would no longer exist. 9. Cultural relativism- taking into account the difference across cultures without passing judgment or assigning values. With this concept we can understand difference for the sake of increasing our knowledge about the world. Ex: In the US people are expected to make eye contact as a sign of respect, but in China it is considered rude so you generally divert your gaze as a sign of respect. 10. Cultural Scripts- modes of behavior and understanding that are not universal or natural. Ex: In some countries young women engaged in and enjoyed casual sex before married and reared children, but in the US this finding causes an uproar because people don’t agree with this belief. 11. Subculture- the distinct cultural values and behavioral patterns of a particular group in society; a group united by sets of concepts, values, symbols, and shared meaning specific to the members of that group distinctive enough to distinguish it from others within the same culture or society. Ex: Subculture studies was to gain a deeper understanding of individuals and groups who traditionally have been dismissed as weirdos at best and deviants at worst. -High school cliques may verge on subcultures—the jocks, the band kids, the geeks 12. Values- moral beliefs or abstract cultural beliefs
13. Norms- how values tell us to behave or how they are put into play Ex: Going to the restroom and then having to wash your hands is a norm. 14. Socialization- the process by which individuals internalize the values, beliefs, and norms of a given society and learn how to become a functioning member of...
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