Sociology Exam 1 Review

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IowaSocialization and the Construction of Reality
* 55 Questions. (plenty of time).
* Chapters 1-4 Conley, Chapters 1-3 Leicht, your two discussion section readings so far (Lovaglia & Ritzer) + lecture notes. * NO Friday quiz this week.
* NO NEW READING ASSIGNMENT THIS WEEK
Socialization: The Concept
* Socialization is the process by which individuals internalize the values, beliefs, and norms of a given society and learn to function as a member of that society. Theories of Socialization
* George Herbert Mead
* Developed a theory about how the social self develops over the course of childhood * Infants know only the “I,” but through social interaction they learn about “me” and the “other” * They develop a concept of the “generalized other,” which allows them to apply norms and behaviors learned in specific situations to new situations * Mead stressed the importance of imitation, play, and games in helping children recognize one another, distinguish between self and other, and grasp the idea that others can have multiple roles. Theories of Socialization

* Eric Erikson
* Established a theory of psychosocial development that identifies eight stages that span a person’s lifetime * Each stage involves a specific conflict that a person must resolve in order to move on to the next stage Erickson’s stages of socialization:

* Infant (0-18 mo.) – trust vs mistrust
* 2 – 3 yrs.—autonomy vs shame and doubt
* 3-5 yrs—intuition vs guilt
* 6 – 11 yrs—idustry vs inferiority
* 12- 18 yrs (adolescence)—identity vs role confusion
* 19 – 40 yrs—intimacy vs isolation
* 40-65 yrs—generativity vs stagnation
* 65 and up—ego integrity vs despair
Agents of Socialization
* Families, school, peers, the media, and total institutions are all important socializing agents or environments. * A total institution is an institution in which one is totally immersed that controls all the basics of day-to-day life. Jean Piaget (1897 -1993)

* Interested in how children learn (empirically) about the world. * Based his observations on the similarity of incorrect responses exhibited by children at similar ages. * Discussed FOUR STAGES of cognitive development:

* Sensorimotor Period (birth – 2 yrs old)
* Pre-occupied with objects. Child develops: Depth perception, Sense of time and causality, and object permanence * Preoperational Period (2 – 6 yrs old)
* Language and symbolic thought, animism, egocentrism, and inability to solve “conservation” problems. * Concrete Operational Period (7 – 11 yrs old)
* Child can take the role of others, thinks logically, can understand humor, and has trouble with abstract problems. * Formal operational period (12 yrs old +)
* Fully function adult cognitive mind.
* Paiget – also a parallel system of moral development
* Children < 5 yrs old – do not engage in sophisticated moral reasoning at all (too egocentric). Moral Realism (~ 6 yrs old)
* Great respect for rules, Punishment by immanent justice, and behavior evaluated by outcomes rather than intentions. The Morality of Reciprocity (~ 9 yrs old +)
* Rules can be changed if necessary, Violations aren’t always wrong and aren’t always punished, and motives are used to judge behavior The Social Construction of Reality
* Socially Construction
* People give meaning or value to ideas or objects through social interactions. * Ongoing process that is embedded in our everyday interactions. The Social Construction of Reality
* Harold Garfinkel developed a method for studying social interactions, called “breaching experiments,” which involved having collaborators exhibit “abnormal” or “atypical” behaviors in social interactions in order to see how people would react.

EXAM 1 QUESTION REVIEW
* *2 QUESTIONS
* Definitions of Sociology- study of human society
* The Sociological...
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