The main stages of Development of thinking and learning for pupils
❖ Cognitive Development “Gaining knowledge through thought and experience”
❖ Social Development “How a child learns to live and interact with others”
❖ Emotional Development “Gaining the ability to understand and cope with emotions and feelings”
❖ Self-esteem/Self Development “Confidence in oneself and ability to recognise how to learn”
4 Stages of Cognitive Development Jean Piaget (1896 – 1980)
Age 0 to 2 years 2 to 6 years 7 to 11 years 11 to 18+ years
Key to terminology in the 4 stages of cognitive development diagram
❖ Object Permanence “If something cannot be seen – it no longer exists” ❖ Egocentrism “See things only from their viewpoint only” ❖ Animism “All things in nature have a soul”
❖ Conservation “The ability to realise that if a material changed shape – its properties would remain the same”
Social Development Albert Bandura 1925
❖ Social theory was developed by Albert Bandura who was born in 1925
❖ Social theory suggests that children learn form their social surroundings and will alter their behaviour according to the interaction and experiences they are faced with. Imagine a class of reception pupils that have just started school – the class is lively and the teacher and assistants give sweets to pupils in an attempt to keep them happy. The class does not get any calmer and yet the teacher and assistants carry on with the same tactics. The children will ultimately think they are doing something right, as they keep getting rewarded. The class progresses from organised chaos into mayhem over the consecutive weeks.
❖ The teacher and assistants are absent from work, because they have to attend a training course for one week, and a supply teacher is called to cover the class. Straight away the supply teacher is astonished by the behaviour and explained he will not start the day unless everyone is quiet and listens. The children are still quite noisy (but not as bad), so the supply teacher deducts 1 minute from their break time. The next day, pupils are still talking in the lesson, but they are starting to listen and they go for break 40 seconds later than other pupils in the school. After one week the pupils are much better behaved and enforcing negative and positive sanctions has helped to develop this. Fairness has been established through explanation of actions and earning back break time.
❖ Although common sense, remember that adults should be positive role models in school. As a role model – remember that children may imitate potentially everything we do.
❖ K Beith et al, 1999, Early Years Care and Education, Heinemann Educational Publishers, Oxford
❖ S Shaw and T Hawes, 1998, A practical guide to the Brain, Optimal learning, Leicester
❖ Emotional development is very important for a child and to a certain extent carries on into adult life. Have you ever had a negative emotional experience (perhaps at school at an early age) – do you still think about this, or has it had an even far-reaching effect?
❖ Emotional development will also be influenced by factors outside the school environment. Examples of this would be a pupil having no respect for, or having confidence in adults – this may have been built up through family life or bad experiences elsewhere. This is when positive experiences for children are vital to establish confidence in adults.
❖ Feeling secure in their surroundings and daily life is important for the development of a child. This security needs to be felt at school, home and...