Sociology

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SocioBiology & Gender
- Thesis of Social Darwinism K.T. CD.
- Claims about: Aggression/Promiscuity/Teamwork
- Evidence via Animal Research
- Critical Review

Functionalism & Gender
- Emphasis on learning (not biology)
- Different sexes assigned
Different roles *for society
- Agents of Socialization
[1) Institution + 2) Individuals] Responsible for teaching us gender. P.A./S.A. Ideal link between them [FOR SOCIETY]
~ Content of Gender Scripts
E.X: 1) Babies 2) Rooms 3) Independence 4) Competetive/Coping

EX#1: Baby Size/Activity (Hale)
EX#2: Rooms (Greenglass)
EX#3: Independence (Greenglass)
EX#4: Competence/Coping (Hale)

2) Monitoring Strategies

EX#1: Sissies/ Tomboys (Mackie)

how is ‘deviance’ from expected gender behavior explained? * Faulty socialization
Advantages over sociobiological theory?
1. Cultural differences
2. Reform

Limitations of functionalist/socialization theory?
1. Implies consensus
2. Assumes consistency (between+within) “” agents of society 3. Insufficient evidence for ‘faulty socialization’
4. Awareness/internalization not the same
Gender Roles: Masculine|Feminine
Gender Roles: Masculine|Feminine

Abnormal
Inappropriate
Wrong
Tomboy
Sissy Excessive Monitoring
Bad
Abnormal
Inappropriate
Wrong
Tomboy
Sissy Excessive Monitoring
Bad

+ reinforcement -reinforcement
+ reinforcement -reinforcement
Script:

Right
Good
Normal

Appropriate
Script:

Right
Good
Normal

Appropriate

SOCIAL CONFLICT THEORY ON GENDER

Distinction from Functionalist Theory

Basis of Social Conflict Theory on Gender
a) history of Marx and Engel
b) focus of their interests

Dimensions of Gender Satisfaction
Gender Stratifcation Gender inequiality (not just different) Unequal ranking of men and women in a society
a) Power
-capacity to oppose will on eithers despite resistence
b) Wealth
- Resources = Wealth[Inheritence] + Work Related Earnings [Labour Force] c) Prestige (status)

Source of Gender Stratification?
*Capitalism – The Struggle For Economic Survival

E.H.G.E
E.H.G.E
Early Huning and Gathering Economies

Equality of Sexes Activities = Impatiant
= P/W/P Communal Property
Shared Resources
No Surplus/Subsistence
Equality of Sexes Activities = Impatiant
= P/W/P Communal Property
Shared Resources
No Surplus/Subsistence

Capitalist Economies

Public
Sphere
(males)
Public
Sphere
(males)
Private
Sphere
(females)
Private
Sphere
(females)

Engels: C. “Marks – The world historical defeat of the female sex.” Women economically dependent Engels: C. “Marks – The world historical defeat of the female sex.” Women economically dependent “It’s very hard to pretend in this world. Eventually we become what we play at.” “It’s very hard to pretend in this world. Eventually we become what we play at.” The Family Wage

The Family Wage
Production
Paid Labor $
Production
Paid Labor $
Domestic Consumption
Unpaid Labor

Domestic Consumption
Unpaid Labor

“Live Off Your Man”

Functionalist Perspective (theory, approach, framework) on Gender Cont’d *monitoring stratigies (praise vs punishment) excessive for boys

Explaining Deviance (outliers) F.S. (Faulty Socialization)
Advantages? 1) Cultural Differences 2) Change

Critical Review: (Limitations) I.C (implies consensus) A.C. (assumes consistency) F.S. ? Able Awareness ≠ internalization

Social Conflict Perspective on Gender
* Why certain gender roles?
* Explanations rooted in Capitalism
*Gender Stratification 3 Dimension? (Power, Wealth, Prestige) 1) gender inequality 2) unequal ranking
*Public/private spheres
Famous Engels quotes...
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