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Human Development

13
CHAPTER

conomic growth though important cannot be an end in itself. Higher standards of living as well as of development opportunities for all, stemming from the greater resources generated by economic growth, are the ultimate aim of development policy. This implies the need to bridge regional, social and economic disparities, as well as the empowerment of the poor and marginalized, especially women, to make the entire development process more inclusive. The draft Twelfth Five Year Plan's subtitle 'Faster, More Inclusive and Sustainable Growth', puts the growth debate in the right perspective. The government's targeted policies for the poor, with the prospect of fewer leakages, can help better translate outlays into outcomes.

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13.2 The global economic and financial crisis which has persisted for the last five years has not only exposed the vulnerability of almost all the countries over the globe to external shocks, but also has lessons for development planning. Countries need to have inbuilt social safety nets for facing such eventualities, which affect the weak and vulnerable the most, and wipe out the fruits of growth for years. India with its focus on inclusive development and timely interventions has, however, been able to weather the crisis better than many other countries. 13.3 India is on the brink of a demographic revolution with the proportion of working-age population between 15 and 59 years likely to increase from approximately 58 per cent in 2001 to more than 64 per cent by 2021, adding approximately 63.5 million new entrants to the working age group between 2011 and 2016, the bulk of whom will be in the relatively younger age group of 20-35 years. Given that it is one of the youngest large nations in the world, human development assumes great economic significance for it as the demographic dividend can be reaped only if this young population is healthy, educated, and skilled (See chapter 2). The emphasis on human development also gains significance in the light of our major social indicators in the recent past being less encouraging than those http://indiabudget.nic.in

of our neighbours like Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. Therefore policy planners in India have, over the years, engaged themselves in making more inclusive growth and development policies, focusing on human development. This approach has been reflected in the substantial enhancement in budgetary support for major social-sector programmes during 2012-13 like the Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY), Backward Regions Grant Fund, Right to Education (RTE)-Sarv Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan, National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), and rural drinking water and sanitation schemes.

HUMAN AND GENDER DEVELOPMENT: INTERNATIONAL COMPARISON
13.4 As per the latest available Human Development Report (HDR) 2011 published by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) (which estimates the human development index [HDI] in terms of three basic capabilities: to live a long and healthy life, to be educated and knowledgeable, and to enjoy a decent economic standard of living), the HDI for India was 0.547 in 2011 with an overall global ranking of 134 (out of

270

Economic Survey 2012-13

Table 13.1 : India’s Global Position in Human Development 2011 HDI Country Value Rank Average annual HDI growth rate (per cent) 199020002011 2011 0.53 0.30 0.86 1.62 0.81 0.89 0.58 1.24 1.19 0.03 1.50 1.38 1.12 1.69 0.66 0.29 0.23 0.69 1.43 0.80 0.78 0.62 0.88 1.17 0.05 1.06 1.56 1.33 1.55 0.66 GNI per GNI per capita capita (constant rank 2005 minus PPP $) HDI rank 47,557 34,431 10,162 7476 4943 7694 3478 5269 3716 9469 2805 3468 2550 1529 10,082 6 16 -7 -7 12 -14 11 -6 -2 -44 8 -10 -7 11 Nonincome HDI value 0.975 0.979 0.748 0.725 0.768 0.714 0.725 0.686 0.674 0.604 0.662 0.568 0.526 0.566 0.683 GII Value Rank

Norway Australia Brazil China Sri Lanka Thailand Philippines Egypt Indonesia South Africa...
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