Study Guide Exam 3 / Chapters 10-13
Emotion: a feeling or affect that is characterized by behavior that expresses or reflects that feeling or affect. The purposes of emotions are to signal other about how one feels, regulating one’s own behavior & plays a role in social exchange. Emotional regulation: the ability to control one’s own emotions and emotional expression. Emotional display rules help determine appropriateness. Emotional Development:
Primary emotion- emotions that are present in humans and other animals and emerge early in life (surprise, interest, joy, anger, sadness, fear, disgust) Self-conscious emotion- Emotions that require self-awareness, especially consciousness and a sense of “me” (jealousy, empathy, embarrassment, pride, shame, guilt) Cry differentiation-
Basic-A rhythmic pattern usually consisting of a cry, a brief silence, a short inspiratory whistle that is higher pitched than the main cry Anger- a cry similar to the basic cry but with more excess air forced through the vocal cord Pain- a sudden appearance of loud crying without preliminary moaning, and a long initial cry followed by an extended period of breath holding Smiling
Reflexive- a smile that does not occur in response to external stimuli, it happens during the month after birth, usually during sleep Social- a smile in response to an external stimulus, which, early in development, typically it’s a face Fear- (peaks around 18 months)
Social Referencing: Reading others emotional ‘cues’. Social Development in the first 2 years:
* Aware of environment and how to interact with it.
* World is responsive or unresponsive.
* Family relationships
* Gender awareness and gender behavior.
Social Development in Early Childhood and Middle Childhood
• Early Childhood- Secondary emotions Pride, Shame, Guilt
• Middle Childhood- Increased cognitive and language skills influences emotional regulation and expression.
• Experiences shape emotional expression.
Personality- characteristic beliefs, attitudes, and ways of interacting with others. Temperament- inborn behavioral styles
Detectable at birth [NBAS]. (physiological, genetic, prenatal environment, birth process.) Alexander Thomas and Stella Chess in 1977 proposed most babies’ fall into one of three categories:
1. Easy 40%
a. Even tempered
c. Happy, calm
d. Open and adaptable
2. Difficult 10%
b. Irritable, irregular
c. Negative reactions to novelty
d. Slow to adapt
e. Cry frequently and hard to comfort
3. Slow to warm 15%
b. Somewhat moody
c. Cautious, adapt slower
• Developmental and Psychoanalytic Psychologist-attachment occurs because of classical conditioning in that the caregiver is meeting the basic needs of the infant (hunger). Konrad Lorenz- greylag goslings (imprinting).
Harry Harlow (1959)-contact-comfort.
Mary Ainsworth: Strange- situation test (1970) with 1 year olds. Attachment behaviors are those, which promote nearness to a specific person: signaling (crying, smiling), orientating (looking), actions (following, hugging). Attachment is mutual and reciprocal.
1. Secure- (strong emotional bond between caregiver and infant as a result of responsive caregiving)
a. Secure-tolerate brief separations from mother but are happy to see her return
2. Insecure – (result of inconsistent or unresponsive caregiving).
a. Avoidant- infant avoids or ignores the mother when she approaches or returns from a brief separation.
b. Ambivalent- infant is upset when mother leaves, but acts angry and rejects her when she returns.
c. Disorganized- infant is inconsistent, disturbed, and confused regarding mother. John Bowlby (1973) proposed that “preprogrammed” behaviors affect both infant and caregiver (evolutionary) and attachment is initiated by those behaviors and maintained by...