Social Science Study Guide

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Study Guide: Intro to Social Sciences
Anthropology:
* How culture contributes to the make-up of humanity
* Science of people (origin, classification, distribution, races, physical character, culture) * Emphasis on cultural relativity, in-depth examination of context and cross-cultural comparisons * Anthropologists: Ruth Benedict, Margaret Mead

* Both quantitative and qualitative methods of research
* Fields: Biological/physical anthropology, Sociocultural anthropology, archaeology, anthropological linguistics Sociology:
* Studies the actions of members within a specific society * How people organize themselves in groups, institutions and associations * Fields: Demography, criminology, gender studies, social stratification * Sociologists: Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim, Talcott Parsons, George H. Mead * Both quantitative and qualitative research methods

Psychology:
* Science of mental processes of a group/individual
* Used in counselling to business
* Fields: Developmental psychology, abnormal psychology, clinical psychology, social psychology, organization psychology, cognitive psychology, personality, neuroscience. * Psychologists: Sigmund Freud, Ivan Pavlov, B.F. Skinner, Albert Bandura, John B Watson

Sociology
* One area of society affects another directly or indirectly * Ideology of society influences marriage, economics, love, freedom, politics * Sociologists seek to make sense of the beliefs and values of the personalities interacting within the complex society that is continually being recreated. KARL MARX (1818-1883)

* Study society using a scientific method to try to predict social outcomes (Marxist theory) * Production is essential for the advancement of society
* A few individuals will control the majority of the resources and production * Conflict in his theory: division of social class one person’s status is elevated while other workers are forced to make money. * Labour Theory of Value: human productive power will be exploited in order to maximize profits for the bourgeois. * Proletariat produces goods valued at more than they are being paid rich getting richer. * Money is the driving force in our society

* Businesses are exploiters, cannot see positive nature of the bourgeois TALCOTT PARSONS (Structural Functionalism)
* As much as things change they stay the same
* Believed society will create structures within itself that will help with its basic functioning requirements * Our society will work to achieve a homeostasis where equilibrium is achieved * Every aspect of society contributes to the successful function of another aspect. (Relies on each other) * When a system breaks down, it is necessary for other components in society to take over or assist the malfunctioning social structure. * Ex: Legal system

* Structural functionalism: Does NOT look at social change; deals with the maintenance of a society (seeks normality, equilibrium). GEORGE H. MEAD (Symbolic Interactionism)
* Symbolic interactionism: Focuses on how humans interpret (define) each other’s actions. Their response is based on the meaning which they attach to such actions (not the actions directly). * Individuals learn and react from interactions within a society. * People influence their surroundings and shape the development of a society. * Society shapes the individual as he/she is shaping the society. * Analyses from the “standpoint of communication as essential to the social order”, not individual psychology. FEMINISM

* Liberal Feminists: Examine social institutions, equal access to increase women’s influence on society. * Radical Feminists: Focus on the exploitation of women. Seek to change the patriarchal social structure through complete structural changes. * Marxist Feminists: Focus on women’s labour being underpaid. * Social Feminists: Focus on the overthrow of the capitalism; believe it...
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