Social Problems

Topics: Criminology, Sociology, Gender Pages: 15 (3369 words) Published: December 9, 2012
Chapter 9

Androgyny- combination of traditional feminine and masculine characteristics Compulsory heterosexuality- System that has disapproval for those who are homosexual or bisexual because they break a norm Capitalist Patriarchy-Male supremacy keeps women’s in subordinate( lower) roles at work/home Feminist Approach- view that believes women and men should be equal Gender- cultural and social definition of feminine and masculine Gender Institutions- all social institutions organized by gender Gender Structure Approach- men and women differ because of external features Gender Segregation- Men and women situated in different jobs Gender Stratification-different ranking and rewards of men and women’s roles Glass Ceiling-invisible barrier, limiting women from moving up in their occupation Gendered- difference in men and women’s behaviors, activities, and value Gender Roles Approach- men and women differ because of society, assumption is they learn to be different Male Dominance- belief that men are better than women, and that men control socially valued resources Pay Equity- raising pay based on worth of jobs, instead of workers personal characteristics Patriarchy-social organization where men are dominant to women Sex-Biological fact of females and males

Sexuality- organizes social world based on sexual identity

Gender identity- what a male or female views themselves as

Division of labor by sex
Men- participation is decreasing
Women-participation in labor force increases faster, remains constant Gender inequality in workplace-
Women choose to have children
Education and experience

gender gap-work earnings- women earn less than men, gap has narrowed to between 70 and 74 percent earnings compared to men
white-80% of what men make
Women have lower paying jobs
Enter work force at different a lower levels
Women as a group are less educated then men
Women work less overtime

Patriarchy- Social organization that men are dominant to women Male Dominance- Men are superior to women
Relates to structural inequality because it puts a gap between man and women in society, giving more power to men

Gender Structure approach vs. Gender inequality approach
Gender Structure- men and women differ based on external features Gender inequality-how women and men are tied to the economic structure of society Consequences
Individuals- child care and household
Society- division of labor and power

Gender differences
Treated at home
Girls- dressed in pink, taught to clean, babied, spoken to softly, touched lightly Boys-dressed in blue, taught to be tough(don’t cry), aggressive play Play
Girls- dolls, house, dress up
Boys- sports, shooting games, cars, wrestling
Played outdoors, played in larger groups, specific age groups, long lasting games, competitive *
* Education and gender socialization
Textbooks portray girls and boys differently
Teachers give girls and boys different attention, girls receive less attention and are treated differently

* Dual labor market
* Primary labor market- High wages, promotion, opportunities for advancement, good working conditions, job security Secondary labor market- low wages, fewer or no promotion, poor working conditions, little job security Women work falls in secondary

* Women overcome sex discrimination through social movements

Chapter 12

Adversary System- US system of justice, state and accused engage in trial to give evidence before judge or jury Bail- accused puts up money promising to be at the trial
Crime- act that breaks the law
Capital punishment-killing of criminal by the state
Corporate crimes- illegal acts by businesses
Determinate sentencing- depending on offense, judge must give appropriate sentence based on laws guidelines Mandatory sentencing- by law certain types of criminals must be incarnated Moral order crimes- acts that violate laws that enforce the morality of the majority Organize...
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