Semantics

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SEMANTICS
-The study of semantics includes the study of how meaning is constructed, interpreted, clarified, obscured, illustrated, simplified, negotiated, contradicted and paraphrased.

AREAS OF SEMANTIC THEORY

* Semantic fields
* Metaphor
* Homonymy
* Homophony
* Homographs
* Polysemy
* Hyponymy
* Hypernymy
* Antonymy
* Synonymy

A. SEMANTIC FIELD
* Set of lexemes which cover a certain conceptual domain and which bear certain specifiable relations to one another. (Adrienne Lehrer, 1985) * Denotes a segment of reality symbolized by a set of related words. Share a common semantic property. (Brinton, 2000) * Traditionally, semantic fields have been used for comparing the lexical structure of different languages and different states of the same language. (Andersen, 1990)

EXAMPLE
* Cat, feline, moggy, puss, kitten, tom, queen, miaow
* Water, cove, harbor, bay

B. ANTONYMY
* Sense relation
* (Greek) opposed name
* Incompatibles but not complementaries( Cruse, 2004)

1. GRADABLE (COMPARATIVE CAN BE FORMED)

3 TYPES
(basis of relationship between the comparative and the positive forms of the relevant predicates) a. Polar antonymy: the comparative of neither term entails the corresponding positive form Long vs. short

X is longer than y does not entail x is long, x is shorter than y does not entail x is short b. Equipollent antonymy: the comparative of neither term entails the corresponding positive form. Hot vs. cold

X is hotter than y entails x is hotter than y entails x is hot, x is colder than y entails x is cold

c. Overlapping antonymy: the comparative of one or both terms entails the corresponding positive form. Good vs. bad
X is better than y does not entail x is good, but x is worse than y entails x is bad

2. COMPLEMENTARY ANTONYMS (CLEAR EITHER OR SITUATIONS)
* open-close
* dead-alive
* on-off

3. CONVERSE/RELATIONAL ANTONYMS (PAIRS WHICH GO TOGETHER AND REPRESENTS TWO SIDES OF RELATIONS) * husband-wife
* borrow-lend
* murderer-victim
* plaintiff-defendant

C. SYNONYMY
* (Greek) same name
* Similar meanings
* Many emerged in the middle ages after Norman conquest of England * Ruling class-Norman Frenchpeople, liberty, archer
* Lower class- old English (Anglo-Saxon)folk, freedom, bowman

EXAMPLE
Synonyms can be any part of speech (same part of speech)
* Verb: buy-purchase
* Adjective:big-large
* Adverb:quickly-speedily
* Preposition:on-upon

D. HYPONYM (opposite of Hypernymy)
* (Greek) below name
* Term used to designate a member of a class
* Describes what happens when we say “an X is a kind of Y” * A linguistic not a real-world, relationship so it varies from one language to another

EXAMPLE
Potato is a hyponym of vegetable in English but in German they don’t include it as a vegetable * Mudfish , milkfish, salmon- fish
* Sow, boar, piglet-pig
* House-building-structure-thing

E. MERONYM(opposite of holonym)
* (Greek)MEROS- part ONOMA- name
* Word that denotes a constituent part or a member of something * Used to describe a part-whole relationships between lexical items * Meronyms vary in how necessary is part to whole. Like cellar for house.

TYPES OF MERONYM RELATIONSHIPS
1. PART MERONYM
Tire – car
2. MEMBER MERONYM
Car-traffic jam
3. SUBSTANCE MERONYM
Wheel-rubber

F. HOMONYMY
* (Greek) HOMOS-same ONOMA-name
* Either the words sound the same or have the same spelling or both but do not have the related meaning

* Homograph-same spelling regardless of how they are pronounced * Rose (flower) and rose (past tense of rise)
* Heteronym-same spelling; pronounced differently and different meaning * Bow (front of a ship) bow (a ranged weapon)

* Homophones- words that share same pronunciation regardless of how they are...
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