Comparative Lexicology

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1.Lexicology as a branch of linguistic study, its connection with phonetics, grammar, stylistics & contrastive linguistics. Lexicology is the branch of linguistics that deals with the lexical component of language. The lexicon holds information about the phonetic, phonological, syntactic, semantic and pragmatic properties of words and consequently has a central role in these levels of analysis. It is also a major area of investigation in other areas of linguistics, such as psycholinguistics, typological linguistics and language acquisition. Lexicology is concerned with the nature of the vocabulary and the structure of the lexicon; and lexicography applies the insights of lexicology, along with those of other linguistics disciplines, to the study of dictionaries and lexicons. Lexicology, on the other hand, is the branch of descriptive linguistics concerned with the linguistic theory and methodology for describing lexical information, often focussing specifically on issues of meaning. Traditionally, lexicology has been mainly concerned with `lexis', i.e. lexical collocations and idioms, and lexical semantics, the structure of word fields and meaning components and relations. Until recently, lexical semantics was conducted separately from study of the syntactic, morphological and phonological properties of words, but linguistic theory in the 1990s has gradually been integrating these dimensions of lexical information.

2. The peculiar features of the English and Ukrainian vocabulary systems. What all this points to is that English vocabulary is really a lot more complicated - and therefore a lot more difficult to learn - than the vocabularies of some other languages. English vocabulary is exceptionally large, and to be fluent in English, you need to have a command of many more words than is the case in some other languages. Furthermore, English is unusual in that it uses word formation systems that are a great deal more complex than those you find in many other languages. It has several different systems, each of which only applies to a limited portion of the total vocabulary. Finally, English exploits the richness of its vocabulary in ways that some other languages do not in order to signal complicated messages. Ukrainian vocabulary includes a large overlay of Polish terminology. Ukrainian vocabulary is still limited and is not as extensive as that of more developed languages, like English, German or Russian. This can largely be attributed to the lack of a prolonged period of encouraged development. As a result, not as many linguists, poets and writers extended the vocabulary of the literary language.

3. Word as the basis language unit and its main properties.
Word is a unit of language that native speakers can identify. - New words can be introduced by borrowing words of morphemes (the smallest unit of meaning) from other languages (often happens in the sciences): photosynthesis

- Often, words are created by expanding the semantic range of a current word or by recombining morphemes.  - All words are metaphors: they are a way of describing something in terms of something else.  In order to understand the metaphorical relationship, one must perceive the connection implied between the word and the object it is said to describe; however, the metaphors may be constructed on quite different attributes of the referent… A word is a unit of language that carries meaning and consists of one or more morphemes which are linked more or less tightly together. Typically a word will consist of a root or stem and zero or more affixes. Words can be combined to create phrases, clauses and sentences. A word consisting of two or more stems joined together is called a compound.

4. The etymological characteristics of the English and Ukrainian vocabulary systems. As a language, English is derived from the Anglo-Saxon, a dialect of West Germanic (as was Old Low German), although its current vocabulary includes words from many languages....
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