• Pretest - pilot study - questionnaire are used to gauge the initial reasons and the validity of doing a particular investigation. It can be translated into another language to be sure that the intended meaning is conveyed by word choice.
- any group of people tied together by some common bond of interest or concern and who have consequences on an organization. - divided into nominatively, demographically and psychographically
• psychographics refers to the various lifestyle, ie VALS (values, attitudes and lifestyles)
• external public - exist outside an institution
• internal public share the institutional identity
• audience -people who are recipients of something (message or performance)
-first step in monitoring an organization's socio-economic and political climate for developments. -helps foresee when opinion is likely to hold
-creates opportunity to avoid a crisis and engage in beneficial communication.
-sensing the problem: research
-defining the problem: setting priority
-deriving solutions: selecting strategies
Mahon's issues strategies
• choose appropriate strategy depending on life cycle of issue (create good image, good perceptions) • contain an emerging issue
• shape an issue that has media attention and is on the public agenda • cope with issues that face legislative, regulatory or interest group action.
Convincing management to address an issue
• state the issue specifically and describe specific effects • identify adversaries and friends
• develop a strategy that includes deciding whether to take the initiative • determine whether to involve coalitions it go it alone.
Image and Perception
- the organisaion's image in the publics eyes
- based on what the...