The traditional model of public administration (which dominated most of the 20th century changed since the mid-1980s to a flexible, market based form of public management. (not only a change in management style, but also in role of government in society and the relationship between government and citizenry). Traditional public administration has been discredited theoretically and practically -adoption of new forms of public management means the emergence of a new paradigm in the public sector. - New paradigm poses a direct challenge to the fundamental principles of traditional public administration: 1.Bureaucracy (govts should organize themselves according to the hierarchical, bureaucratic principles enunciated by Weber) 2.One best way (of working and procedures were set out in manuals for admins to follow. strict adherence to these scientific mgmt principles would provide one best way of operating an org) 3.Bureaucratic delivery (once govt involved itself in a policy area, it would become direct provider of goods/services) 4.Politics/administration dichotomy (admin is instrument used to carry out instruction and matters of policy or strategy belong to political leadership) 5. Public interest (service to the public was provided selflessly) 6.Professional bureaucracy (neutral, anonymous employed for life with ability serve political master equally) 7. Administrative (following instructions provided by others without personal resp) -Challenges:
1. Bureaucracy is powerful but doesn't work well in all circumstances and has some negative consequences. 2.Trying to find the one best way is elusive and can lead to rigidity in operation 3. Delivery by bureaucracy is not the only way: subsidies, regulation, contracts. 4. Politics and administration are entwined -public demands better mechanisms of accountability where once bureaucracy operated separately from society. 5. There may be public servants motivated by public interest, but they may also be assumed to work for their own advancement and that of their agency instead of being pure and selfless. 6. Case of unusual employment conditions in the public services is much weaker (especially given changes in private sector where jobs for life are rare). 7. The tasks involved in public sector are now considered more managerial requiring someone to take responsibility. -Economic problems in the 1980s means governments reassessed their bureaucracies and demanded changes, -Traditional model of administration is based on bureaucracy, public management is based on markets.
The emergence of a new approach
-By 1990s a new model of public sector mgmt- ‘managerialism’ ‘new public mgmt’ ‘mkt based public admin’ ‘entrepreneurial govt’ -settled on New public mgmt NPM -Hood.
-UK: 3E’s economy, efficiency effectiveness in all level of British govt
-US: Gore report: i. shift from system where people are accountable for following rules to accountable for getting results. ii. putting customers first.
iii. empowering employees to get results.
iv. cutting back to basics and producing better govt for less. -Striking similarities in the reforms carried out in a number of countries, it is argued that greatest shift is one of theory rather is one of theory than practice. NPM paradigm is a direct response to the inadequacies of traditional public administration in particular inadequacies of public bureaucracies. -Public mgmt reforms driven by different theories: economic motivations can be assumed for all players in govt; private mgmt provides lessons for govt ; no separation of politics from admin + change from admin to mgmt.
Administration and management
-Administration essentially involves following instructions and services; mgmt involves first the achievement of results, secondly personal responsibility by manager for results...