Psychology Chapters 1-2 Notes

Topics: Nervous system, Brain, Neuron Pages: 7 (1375 words) Published: March 16, 2014
Psychology Notes

Chapter 1: Introduction to Psychology
Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
-What can you see(behavior)
-What you cant see(mental processes)
-Describe predict explain behavior and mental processes using the scientific method Subfields of Psychology
-Biological Foundations (Behavioral Neuroscience) seek relationships between brain and behavior and mental processes, role of heredity, evolution
-Experimental Psychology (Cognitive Psychology)
Change and Stability in behavior across the life span
-Developmental psychology
-personality psychology
Physical and Mental health
-health psychology
-clinical psychology
-counseling psychology
-forensic psychology
Social networks and behavior
-social psychology
-cross-cultural psychology
Understand the different subfields is important because it allows us to look at the same behavior in multiple ways

Do men receive the majority of doctoral degrees in psychology? NO 300,000 psychologists in US (75% women/25% men) research, practice, teach Psychiatrists can write prescriptions, Psychologists cannot.

More that 2000 years ago Aristotle wrote a book on psychology with contents similar to the book you are holding? TRUE Structuralism
-Wilhelm Wundt (Father of Psychology)
-Structuralism breaks conscious experiences into:
-objective sensations, subjective feelings, mental images
-Mind functions by combining objective and subjective elements of experience Functionalism
-William James
-Functionalism focused on behavior in addition to mind and consciousness
-Used direct observations to supplement introspection (the examination ones own mental and emotional processes)
-Influenced by Darwins theory of evolution
-Adaptive behavior patterns are learned and maintained
Behaviorism
-John Broadus Watson
-Focuses on learning observable behavior
-B.F. Skinner
-Learned behavior is behavior that is reinforced
Gestalt Psychology
-Gestalt focused on perception and its influence on thinking and problem solving
-Perceptions are more than sum of their parts
-Learning is active and purposeful
-Flash of insight
Psychoanalysis
-Sigmund Freud
-Psychoanalysis
-Influence of unconscious ideas and conflicts that originate in childhood Humanistic-Existential Perspective
-Humanism stresses human capacity for selffulfillment
-Role of consciousness self awareness decision making
-Existentialism stresses free choice and personal responsibility
-Carl Rogers
-Abraham Maslow
Four Goals of Psychology
-Describe Behavior
-Predict Behavior
-Understand/Explain Behavior
-Change/Control Behavior
To improve the lives of people and the world in which they live. Scientific Method
Step 1: Identifying questions of interest
Step 2: Formulating an explanation
Step 3: Carrying out research designed to support of refute the explanation
Step 4: Communicating the findings
Descriptive research
-designed to systematically investigate a person group or patters of behavior
-Archival Research
-Naturalistic Observation
-Survey Research-used to collect information that cannot be observed directly Case Study: intensive investigation of an individual or small group
-Sometimes used to investigate rarities
Correlational Research: two sets of variables are examined to see if they are associated
-Positive Correlation
-Negative Correlation
-Correlation does not show causation
Experimental Research
-Establish cause and effect relationships using formal experiments
-Independent variable-condition that is manipulated by an experimenter
-Dependent variable-variable that is measured and expected to change as a result of the changes cause by the experimenter’s manipulation of the independent variable Random assignment to condition

-Experimental group-group that receives treatment
-Control group-group that receives no treatment
Ethical review...
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