Psychology

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Chapter
One
 
 
 A.
Understanding
Psychology
 
 Directions:

Answer
each
of
the
following
questions
in
a
brief
paragraph.
 
 
 1. “Psychology
has
a
short
past,
but
a
long
history.”

What
does
that
mean?
 2. How
did
Wundt
help
to
define
psychology
as
a
science
of
the
mind?
 3. Why
did
James
think
that
sensation
and
perception
alone
couldn’t
explain
 behaviour?
 4. How
did
Freud’s
ideas
differ
from
previous
approaches
to
psychology?
 5. How
did
Watson’s
approach
to
psychology
differ
from
that
of
Freud?
 6. How
did
Skinner
expand
behaviourism?
 7. How
did
Gestalt
psychologists
influence
the
way
we
think
about
perception?
 8. What
aspects
of
life
do
humanistic
psychologists
stress?
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Source: Morris, Charles G. and Maisto Albert A. (2010) Understanding Psychology, 9th ed. Pearson Education Inc.: N. J. U.S.A. 
 




B.
Applying
Critical
Thinking
Guidelines
 The
following
are
some
guidelines
for
critical
thinking.
 1.
Ask
questions,
be
willing
to
wonder.
 2.
Define
the
problem.
 3.
Examine
the
evidence.
 4.
Analyze
assumptions
and
biases
 5.
Avoid
emotional
reasoning.
 6.
Don’t
oversimplify
(either/or
thinking
 or
overgeneralizations).
 
 7.
Consider
other
interpretations.
 8.
Tolerate
uncertainty.
 
 


Directions:
Each
of
the
statements
below
violates
at
least
one
of
the
guidelines
for
 critical
thinking.

Identify
the
guideline
that
was
violated
and
give
a
brief
 explanation
for
your
choice.
 1. A
political
editorial
supporting
severe
penalties
for
the
production
and
sale
 of
pornography
pointed
out
that
all
societies
are
repressive
to
some
extent,
 and
that
it
was
Freud
who
pointed
out
that
repression
is
the
price
we
pay
for
 civilization.
 2. Because
we
have
never
been
visited
by
extraterrestrials,
and
have
had
no
 communication
from
outer
space,
we
can
safely
assume
that
intelligent
life
 exists
only
on
our
own
planet.
 3. Donna
bought
a
bottle
of
pain
reliever
because
a
TV
commercial
claimed
 that
most
hospitals
prescribe
it.
 4....
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