Psychology 101

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2013/04/29

Viv O’Neill

Research methods
Psychology 101 S1 2013
Nick Munro Room 42 Discipline of Psychology Email: munron@ukzn.ac.za Student consultation times: Monday 08h30 – 09h30 Tuesday 08h30 – 09h30 Friday 12h00 – 13h00

Amy-Jo Murray
Attention and memory

History and schools of thought

Phindile Mayaba
Sensation and perception

Nicholas Munro

Research methods

Introduction to psychology (Psych 101)

Nandisa Tushini

Biological psychology

Phephelani Zondi

Thinking, language and intelligence

Learning and conditioning

Carol Mitchell

History and schools of thought Attention and memory Sensation and perception

What is research? • • • • • • Investigate Study South African stand up comedy : a research Explore resource? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5QW3GqbFITs Look into Examine Quest to understand human behaviour and social phenomena

Research methods

Introduction to psychology (Psych 101)

Biological psychology

Thinking, language and intelligence

Learning and conditioning

1

2013/04/29

apply statistical analysis to data

obtain data in the form of descriptive narratives in order to understand a phenomenon from the perspective of the research participant

2 Choosing a method 1 Planning

3 Collecting data

quantitative research

qualitative research

Research methods

A six step research process

4 Analysing data

develop statistical approaches for measuring and explaining human behaviour

gain an understanding of the meanings that people give to their experiences

6 Building theory

5 Reporting findings

2 Choosing a method 1 Planning

1a) Selecting a research topic 3 Collecting data 1 Planning

1b) Reviewing the literature

Research methods

A six step research process

4 Analysing data

Research methods

1c) Formulating questions

6 Building theory

5 Reporting findings

2

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1a) Selecting a research topic Common sources used to select a topic Your personal interest

• Consult previous work done in the area • Are there gaps in the literature? • Local and international work • What theoretical frameworks inform the existing research/literature in the area? • Academic journals and books in the library • Internet and electronic resources

1b) Reviewing the literature

1c) Formulating questions
• Formulate the general research problem, and identify central research questions

The concerns of a group of people

2 Choosing a method 1 Planning

3 Collecting data

2 Choosing a method

Types of research studies

Types of research designs Units of analysis Relevance? Sampling

Research methods

A six step research process

4 Analysing data

Variables Hypotheses Time frame

6 Building theory

5 Reporting findings

3

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2 Choosing a method

flexible

Types of research studies Exploratory Descriptive Explanatory

Types of research designs

• A property of an individual that could vary from one person to the next (e.g. Psych 101 lecture attendance, Psych 101 results) • Independent variables’ (IV) values exert an influence on the values of dependent variables (DV) Variables • Causal relationship? or • Positive or negative correlation

2 Choosing a method

The people or objects a researcher wants to collect information from

Units of analysis Examples include: • an individual, • an object, • a group of people, • an organisation. Unit of analysis influences:

inflexible

1) Who participates in study (sampling), 2) how data is collected, and 3) what conclusions can be drawn

Positive and negative correlation between variables

• A testable statement of prediction • A statement about what the researcher intends to find out • A supposition made as a starting point for further research • A hypothesis is proposed as part of the research design Hypotheses

2 Choosing a method

For example: • Students receiving financial aid are more vulnerable to...
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