Psych Chapter 4 Outline Ap

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Chapter 4- Sensation and Perception
* Sensation vs. Perception
* Sensation- Basic processes by which sensory receptors and the nervous system: Receive and represent stimulus energies from environment, and entails basic psychological experiences. * Bottom-Up Processing- Sensory detection and encoding; construction of whole from parts. * This includes Lines, shapes, angels, colors, items/events that grab our attention * Perception- Interpretation and integration

* “Top Down” processing- conceptually driven organization & interpretation of info * Experiences
* Expectations
* Absolute vs. Difference Thresholds
* Absolute threshold- Minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time Smallest detectable level of a stimulus
* Difference Thresholds- Minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50% of the time The measure of how different two stimuli have to be in order for the subject to notice that they are not the same. Signal-to-noise Ratio & Signal detection Theory

Signal detection theory- Predicts how and when we detect presence of a faint stimulus (signal) among background noise. Signal-to-noise ratio- It becomes harder to detect a signal as background noise increases. This depends on… Experience

Expectations
Motivation
Level of fatigue
Sensory Adaptation
Activation is greatest when a stimulus is first detected
Sensitivity diminishes as a consequence of constant stimulation (my socks are on, my socks are on…)
Sensory interactions
* The principle that one sensory system may affect another (cross-modal processing) Ex. Smell of food influences taste
When Visual information influences auditory perception (McGurk effect) McGurk effect- Demonstrates that we integrate visual and auditory information when processing spoken language, and our brains automatically calculate the most probable sound given the info from the two sources. Saying...
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