1.Absolute Threshold: the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time. 2.Accommodation: the process by which the eye's lens changes shape to focus near or far images on the retina. 3.Acetylcholine: neurotransmitter that enables muscle action, learning and memory. 4.Achievement Motivation: desire for accomplishment.
5.Achievement Test: an exam designed to test what a person has earned. 6.Acoustic Encoding: encoding of sound, especially words.
7.Acquisition: the initial stage when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus. 8.Action Potential: a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon. 9.Activation Synthesis: theory that REM sleep triggers neural firing that evokes random images, which our sleep brain weaves into stories. 10.Adaptation Level Phenomenon: tendency to form judgements relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience. 11.Adrenal Glands: a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones that help arouse the body in times of stress. 12.Algorithm: a methodical, logical rule that guarantees solving a particular problem. 13.Alpha Waves: the relatively slow brain waves of an awake, relaxed state. 14.Amnesia: loss of memory.
15.Amphetamines: drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes. 16.Amygdala: two lima bean-sized neural clusters in the limbic system; linked to emotion. 17.Aphasia: impairment of language caused by left hemisphere damage to Broca's area, impairing speaking, or Wernicke's area, impairing understanding. 18.Applied Research: scientific study that aims to solve practical problems 19.Aptitude Test: designed to predict a person's future performance. 20.Association Areas: areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary or sensory functions but in higher mental functions. 21.Associative Learning: learning that certain events occur together. 22.Automatic Processing: unconscious encoding of incidental information. 23.Autonomic Nervous System: the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs. 24.Availability Heuristic: estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory. 25.Axon: the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles and glands. 26.B.F. Skinner: a leading behaviorist; rejected introspection and studied how consequences shape behavior. 27.Babbling Stage: begins at 4 months; stage of speech development in which infant spontaneously utters various sounds. 28.Barbituates: drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgement. 29.Basal Metabolic Rate: body's resting rate of energy expenditure. 30.Basic Research: pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base 31.Behavior Genetics: the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior. 32.Behavioral Medicine: integrates behavioral and medical knowledge to apply to health and disease. 33.Behaviorism: the view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental process. 34.Belief Perseverance: clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis has been discredited. 35.Binocular Cues: depth cues such as retinal disparity that depend on using two eyes. 36.Bio-Feedback: electronically recording, amplifying and feeding back information regarding a subtle physiological state. 37.Biological Psychology: a branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior. 38.Biopsychosocial Approach: an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis. 39.Blind Spot: the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a "blind spot" because no receptor cells are located there....
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