Principles and Practice of Management
1. Administration and Management:-
Administration and Management are generally taken to mean as one and the same and are often used interchangeably. Administration can be defined as the universal process of organizing people and resources efficiently so as to direct activities towards common goals and objectives. Management in all business and human organization activity is simply the act of getting people together to accomplished desired goals. Management is the vital aspect of the economic life of man. Management is a vital function concerned with all aspects of the working of an enterprise. Management refers to different processes or steps of management, right from planning to organizing, staffing, supervising and controlling. Management is the process of getting things done by and in cooperation with others. Administration is the function in industry concerned with the determination of the corporate policy, the co-ordination of finance, production and distribution whereas Management is the function of policies and is a determinative function while management is executive of policies within the limits setup by administration. Administration is formulation of policies and is a determinative function; management is execution of policies and is an executive function. Administration involves the overall setting of major objectives determination of policies, identifying general purposes laying down broad programmes, major objectives, while management is the active direction of human efforts with a view to getting things done. Management is a manifold activity. It is carried on at different levels of the organization structure. This stage in the organization where a particular type of function starts is called a level of management. Levels of management refer to a line of demarcation between various managerial positions in an organization. In most of the organization there are generally three levels of management Top Management, middle management and lower management.
2. Drawbacks in classical and neo-classical theories of management:- All organization have certain aims and objectives before them for which they strive and do their best to achieve them through their people who run and mange the affairs. In order to define the roles of their members, their behaviour and activities, they develop certain rules and regulations, policies, practices and procedures. Organization is thus made of objectives, people, systems and procedures. There are different theories of organization that prevails i.e. Classical, Neoclassical theory and Modern Organization theory each has its own advantages’ and disadvantages. The classical theory suffers from various limitations and drawbacks. The criticisms were mainly based on certain assumptions which were unrealistic and hence not applicable to the organizations at a later date. The neo-classical theory provides various modifications and improvements over the classical theory of management offering more humanistic view towards people at work. This theory introduces behavioural science in the study of organization functioning which help the mangers. This approach emphasizes the micro analysis of human behaviour. This theory has brought into light certain important factors which were ignored in the classical theory. The approach gives evidence of accepting the classical doctrine through superimposing its modifications, resulting from individual behaviour and the influence of the informal group. This theory also has few limitations and drawbacks, certain assumption on which the neoclassical theory is based do not seem to be true. The various format and structures of organization given by this theory are not universal, their applications is limited and have no particular structure which servers the purpose of...
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