Principle of International Relations

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D-The international system
Is created to prevent anarchy, which is a lack of central government control and lack of rules/law enforcement. Therefore most governments agree on norms of behavior. What behavior is considered good or bad or proper.

Rogue states: al douwal el kharija 3an el kanoun.
Sovereignty: this means that a government has a control over and can do anything it wants in its own territories; it also means that government should not interfere in the internal affairs of another gov. Balance of power: by one or a group of states and it is believed that this will maintain the security and stability of the international system. Great powers/middle powers: GP: are the most military and economic powers (Russia, China, Britain, France, Germany, US) and MP: some are large but not highly industrialized, some are small but have specialized capabilities, and some have considerable influence in their region (regional powers) ex: Brazil, Italy, India, Indonesia, Iran, Canada, Turkey …) Hegemony: Direct opposite of sovereignty, it is the act of total control by one state over the world or over a certain region or over a certain state. Ex: in the 18th-19th centuries: the British empires, in the 20th -21th centuries: US and in 1990-2005 the Syrian hegemony

E-Alliances
This is when two or more countries ally themselves in order to increase their power in relation to other states. This will allow them more bargaining power-alliances survive for special goals & purposes and may end after the completion of these goals and purposes. Ex: Soviet unions & us vs. Hitler and Mussolini in WW2….NATO and the Warsaw. Most alliances are formed because of a perceived threat. Sun Tzu: Disrupting alliances of enemy states is the most effective way to win a power struggle. El douwal el gharbiye 3am t7ewel tekhlof iran w Syria. Immanuel Kant: the majority of states could unite to punish a state which is aggressive or committed an act of aggression. This is not to allow the self-interest of a state to affect the collective interest of other states especially small ones. Ex: Iran and the west. Conditions to make this work: 1- countries are committed to the group and group action and more important that these countries and states agree on what constitutes aggression Ex: Iran, The west, Russia and china.

F-Liberalism:
-These are people who believe that violence and war are irrational and result from defective reasoning and harm the collective and long term wellbeing of a state Ex: World War 2 -They see spending money on building nuclear weapons as absurd because of its destructive power: Money could be spent for much better things. People are irrational and could use nuclear weapons to destroy the world Ex: these arguments are used by US and Israel against Iran 1-Regimes:

An international regime is a set of rules, norms and procedures around which states are expected to converge: Ex the United Nations They do not negate the effect of power but they modify and normalize existing power relations. 2-collective security:

This is the formation of wide alliance of most major states in an international system for the purpose of jointly opposing aggression by any state. Ex: Iraq/Saddam hussein’s invasion of Kuwait (saddam lamma hajam 3al Kuwait, hajamo 3lei kaza dawle 3al Iraq ta talla3ou men el Kuwait.)

G- Peace Studies
This is to seek to move international relations from state to state level into a wide concept of social relations at the individual, domestic and global level. They seek the potential for peace not through the transactions between state leaders but in the transformation of societies and transnational communities ignoring state borders. They thing a good way to gain knowledge is to participate and not just sit and observe- the want to decrease war and promote the chances of peace. 1-cpnflict resolution:

This is the development and implementation of peaceful...
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