political geography - examination of political processes and organizations at several levels state - politically organized territory with a stable population, boundaries that are internationally recognized, and an effective government and economy, and full control over its internal and external affairs 1. A single government in control
2. A specified area of land
3. A permanent population
4. Government control of internal and external affairs
5. Sovereignty - Name the 5 requirements of a state.
sovereignty - a state has full control over its affairs
microstates - states with extremely small areas
nationality - legal attatchment and alliegance of a group of people to a state ethnicity - cultural, linguistic, or religious identity held by a group of people with common national origins nation - group of people who share common cultural features
self-determination - a nation has political independence (the right to make decisions without outside interference) nation-state - political unit containing one nation
multinational state - state that contains multiple nations with a history of self-determination stateless nation - nation without a territory to call its own nationalism - sense of loyalty and pride in a specific nationality physical boundaries - natural boundaries between national groups political boundaries - human-created boundaries
centripetal force - forces that unite people and increase support for a state centrifugal force - forces that divide a nation and decrease support of a state nationalism - places emphasis on dedication to one's nation or nation-state regionalism - places emphasis on regional issues over those of a single nation or nation-state ethnocenterism - the belief that one's own culture is superior to all others empire - political unit with a large territory or multiple territories under a simple sovereign government and emperor colonialism - policy in which one state takes control of another area and imposes its economic, political, and cultural characteristics in the area colony - area under the legal control of another state
imperialism - policy of one state extending control over territiories occupied by an indigenous group The Heartland Theory - states that world power depends on controlling the heartland region of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, because these regions are a major source of the world's grain supply and are therefore vital to political dominance The Rimland Theory - states that alliances between sea-controlling states are able to keep the heartland under control and prevent its dominance, and therefore control of the seas is the most important component of political power. The Containment Policy - employed by the U.S. against the Soviet Union during the Cold War; attempted to prevent the spread of Communism by the Soviets by aiding noncommunist states around Soviet territory financially and militarily; the goal of the policy was to build a territorial containment wall around Communist states, but Communist military forces still succeeded in spreading Communism to some other states. The Domino Theory - states that the collapse of one state will inevitably result in the collapse of neighboring states (which are likely to be somewhat dependent on the first state) unless they have outside support to help prevent them from falling The Social Contract Theory - states that people give up certain liberties in exchange for the benefits of an organized government federal government - political and economic power is shared between national and subnational governments; the national government holds more power, as the subnational governments are subject to its laws Confederation - more power is held by the subnational governments than the central governments; the national government serves the collective heads of the subnational government Unitary government - the central government holds the most power in the state and subnational governments act on...