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Student no: XXXXX Study programme: ICM The four major paradigms

Course: Philosophy of Science

Paradigms “represents a worldview that defined, for its holder, the nature of the “world,” the individual’s place in it, and the range of possible relationships to that world and its parts” (107 – COMPENDIUM) There are four different paradigms; positivism, postpositivism, critical theory and constructivism. Each of these can be described by means of usage within the three fields of ontology (Deals with the nature of realism), epistemology (Deals with knowledge) and methodology (A set of methods and principles used to perform a particular activity).

When dealing with positivism, the ontological nature of the social world is naive realism. Reality exists “out there” and is driven by immutable natural laws and mechanisms. Laws and mechanics are often referred to in the form of time- and context free generalizations. The epistemological approach is that of finding research to be true. If the researcher has either been influenced, or is influencing the research it can be seen as invalid and it being discarded. Finally the methodology approach states that the research has to be validated or dominated in order to get a specific outcome. Ontological speaking, postpositivism deals with critical realism; the reality is real but only in an imperfect way. Furthermore; Reality is driven by natural laws that can be only incompletely understood. When dealing with the epistemology aspect of postpositivism, the dualism is abandoned (remains as an ideal). The research findings have to fit the pre-existing knowledge. The validity of finding are being questioned. Finally, the methodology uses qualitative techniques in order to manipulate/redress the research findings to fit the meanings and purposes that people ascribe their actions. The research are depending more on grounded theory, and reintroducing discovery into the inquiry process. Furthermore, the research is moved to more natural settings. The ontological aspects of critical theory are considered to be like the one of positivism; Reality exists but can never be fully apprehended. The words are driven by natural laws that can be only incompletely understood. The epistemology aspect states that the investigator is closely linked with the researched “object”. It is also determined that research findings are mediated by their value. Moreover, it can also be concluded that the researcher has a connection with the researched object with links it closer to the methodology part of researching. In methodology the focus is on eliminating false consciousness, energizing and facilitate transformation.

04-01-2012

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Student no: XXXXX Study programme: ICM

Course: Philosophy of Science

Constructivism is the last of the four paradigms. Ontologically, the reality exists in the form of

multiple mental constructions, sociality and experimental based, local and specific, dependent for their form and content on the persons who hold them. When looking at the epistemology, the investigator and object are linked together for the findings of the research to be created during the investigation process. Findings are literally the creation of the process of interaction between the two. Also, the line between epistemology and methodology are removed. Finally, the methodology states that it is the relationship between the respondents and investigators that create the informed and sophisticated consensus construction. This construction has to be better than the previous constructions. Paradigms are used to analyse and explain objects of social study

Evaluation There are several ways of conducting an evaluation for Wal-Mart; focus group, in depth interview and observation. A focus group is an interview conducted by a trained professional in a small group that has been carefully selected to match the target group of the company. The objective of a focus group is to create a forum where...
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