Chapter 10 Outline
Use this annotated chapter outline to review the major topics covered in this chapter. Return to skim any sections that seem unfamiliar. Then test your understanding of the chapter by selecting the quizzes and short-answer activities included in this Online Study Guide. I. Opening Vignette
A. In 1964, the Eastern Orthodox patriarch Athenagoras and Pope Paul VI met and rescinded the mutual excommunication decrees imposed by their respective churches in 1054. 1. Christianity had provided common ground for postclassical societies in western Eurasia 2. but Christendom was deeply divided: Byzantine Empire and West a. Byzantium continued Roman imperial traditions b. West tried to maintain links to classical world c. but Roman imperial order disintegrated in the West 3. Roman Catholic Church of the West established independence from political authorities; Eastern Orthodox Church did not 4. western church was much more rural than Byzantium 5. Western Europe emerged, at an increasing pace after 1000, as a dynamic third-wave civilization 6. Western Europe was a hybrid civilization: classical, Germanic, Celtic 7. in 500 c.e., only about one-third of all Christians lived in Europe a. many distinct forms of Christianity in other regions b. many branches have survived throughout Afro-Eurasia; other branches were eliminated by spread of alternative religions II. Eastern Christendom: Building on the Past A. The Byzantine Empire has no clear starting point. 1. continuation of the Roman Empire 2. some scholars date its beginning to 330 c.e., with foundation of Constantinople a. formal division of Roman Empire into eastern and western halves in late fourth century c.e. 3. western empire collapsed in fifth century; eastern half survived another 1,000 years 4. eastern empire contained ancient civilizations: Egypt, Greece, Syria, and Anatolia 5. Byzantine advantages over western empire a. wealthier and more urbanized b. more defensible capital (Constantinople) c. shorter frontier d. access to the Black Sea; command of eastern Mediterranean e. stronger army, navy, and merchant marine f. continuation of late Roman infrastructure g. conscious effort to preserve Roman ways B. The Byzantine State
1. the Byzantine Empire was much smaller than the Roman Empire 2. but it remained a major force in eastern Mediterranean until around 1200 a. reformed administrative system: generals had civil authority in the provinces, raised armies from peasants 3. political authority was tightly centralized in Constantinople a. emperor ruled as God’s representative on earth b. awesome grandeur of court (based on ancient Persian style) c. was mostly concerned with tax collection and keeping order 4. territory shrank after 1085, as western Europeans and Turks attacked a. 1453: Ottoman Turks conquered Constantinople, ended empire...
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