3)The Development of Russia
a)Eastern Slavs converted by missionaries from Byzantine Empire to Orthodox Christianity. Eastern Orthodoxy rejects pope, but else wise is similar to Rom. Cat. b)Loose but real political unification of eastern Slavic territories under single prince and dynasty c)Feudal division into boyard nobility and commoner peasantry d)After death of Prince Iaroslav the Wise, Kievan principality disintegrated into competing political units- 1504 e)The Mongol Yoke and the Rise of Moscow
i)Slavs remained united by Mongol conquest of the Kievan principality ii)Mongols were nomadic tribes, Chinggis Khan 1 of greatest conquerors (1)Subdues China, turned Westward, Mongol Army (Golden Horde) conquered ruled Slavs for over 200 years- Mongol Yoke (2)Slavic princes forced to submit, pay tribute, give slaves, united Slavs iii)Beginning with Alexander Nevesky in 1252, previously insignificant princes of Moscow became adept at serving Mongols. Put down uprisings, collected taxes, became princes, eventually able to destroy princely rivals and replace the khan as supreme ruler Muscovite princes (1)Ivan I- built up large fortune + increased influence by loaning money to other princes to pay Mongol taxes (a)Rival price of Tver organized revolt against Mongols 1327, Ivan led Russian-Mongol army and destroyed Tver- made Ivan tax collector (2)Ivan III- process of gathering territories around Moscow completed (included wealthy, crucial Novgorod region), completely princely authority (a)Prince of Moscow became unique, absolute ruler—tsar. Absolute power and autocracy developed b/c Ivan stopped acknowledging khan as supreme ruler, + after fall of Constantinople to Turks in 1453 tsars saw themselves as heirs of caesars and Orthodox Christianity (i)Al other Europe heretics, “holy Russia”, “third Rome” (b)Noble boyars began losing power and influence- Ivan conquered Novgorod, confiscated 80% of land for himself, gave remainder to newly emerging service nobility—held tsars land on condition they serve in the tsar’s army f)Tsar and People to 1689
i)Ivan IV- rise of service nobility accelerated, took Anastasia of Romanov family for his wife, declared war on remnants of Mongol power ii)Wars against khanates added territory to Russia, Ivan abolished distinction between hereditary boyar private property and land granted for service—all had to serve tsar in order to hold any land iii)After unsuccessful war with Polish-Lithuanian state + death of wife, struck down ancient Muscovite boyars with a reign of terror (1)Leading boyars, relatives, peasants, and servants executed en masse by special crops (forerunner to secret police), estates broken up and given to lower service nobility—were dependent on autocrat iv)As nobles demanded more from peasants b/c of depopulation, many fled to east and south and formed Cossacks- outlaw army beyond reach of tsar (1)Solution was to tie peasants to land and noble, in turn bound to tsar v)Urban traders and artisans bound to town and jobs, tsar assumed owned Russia’s trade and industry (1)Urban classes had no security in work or property, dependent on tsar (2)IF business became property, often taken over by tsar and made a royal monopoly—checked growth of middle class (as opposed to in W. Europe where capitalist middle class gained strength and security thru their private property) vi)Ivan’s system of autocracy and compulsory service struck foreign observers forcibly- German Herberstein wrote ppl consider themselves slaves of princes, French Jean Bodin struck vii)Death of Ivan 1584 resulted in violent power struggle, confusion, son Theodore died without an heir in 1598 viii)Invading Swiss and Poles, Cossack bands led by Ivan Bolotnikov rallied peasants and killed nobles- called for true tsar ix)Nobles crushed Rebellion 1613 Michael Romanov elected new hereditary tsar-re-established tsarist autocracy + military obligations on nobles relaxed, successor pious Alexis continued trend x)Second mass upheaval,...
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