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  • Topic: Operating system, Process, Scheduling
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DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

SEMESTER -IV

LECTURE NOTES

ON
CS1253 – OPERATING SYSTEMS

PREPARED BY

K.S.KANNAN AP/CSE

SYLLABUS CS1253 – OPERATING SYSTEMS UNIT I PROCESSES AND THREADS Introduction to operating systems – Review of computer organization – Operating system structures – System calls – System programs – System structure – Virtual machines – Processes – Process concept – Process scheduling – Operations on processes – Cooperating processes – Inter process communication – Communication in client – Server systems – Case study – IPC in linux – Threads – Multi-threading models – Threading issues – Case study – Pthreads library. UNIT II PROCESS SCHEDULING AND SYNCHRONIZATION CPU scheduling – Scheduling criteria – Scheduling algorithms – Multiple – Processor scheduling – Real time scheduling – Algorithm evaluation – Case study – Process scheduling in Linux – Process synchronization – The criticalsection problem – Synchronization hardware – Semaphores – Classic problems of synchronization – Critical regions – Monitors – Deadlock – System model – Deadlock characterization – Methods for handling deadlocks – Deadlock prevention – Deadlock avoidance – Deadlock detection – Recovery from deadlock. UNIT III STORAGE MANAGEMENT Memory management – Background – Swapping – Contiguous memory allocation – Paging – Segmentation – Segmentation with paging – Virtual memory – Background – Demand paging – Process creation – Page replacement – Allocation of frames – Thrashing – Case study – Memory management in linux . UNIT IV FILE SYSTEMS File system interface – File concept – Access methods – Directory structure – Filesystem mounting – Protection – File system implementation – Directory implementation – Allocation methods – Free space management – Efficiency and performance – Recovery – Log-structured file systems – Case studies – File system in linux – File system in Windows XP. UNIT V I/O SYSTEMS I/O systems – I/O hardware – Application I/O interface – Kernel I/O subsystem – Streams – Performance – Massstorage structure – Disk scheduling – Disk management – Swap-space management – RAID – Disk attachment – Stable storage – Tertiary storage – Case study – I/O in linux.

TEXT BOOKS 1. Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne, “Operating System Concepts”, 6th Edition, Wiley India Pvt, Ltd, 2003. 2. Tanenbaum, S., “Modern Operating Systems”, 2nd Edition, Pearson Education, 2004.

REFERENCES 1. Gary Nutt, “Operating Systems”, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education, 2004. 2. William Stallings, “Operating Systems”, 4th Edition,Prentice Hall of India, 2003.

UNIT I PROCESSES AND THREADS Introduction to operating systems – Review of computer organization – Operating system structures – System calls – System programs – System structure – Virtual machines – Processes – Process concept – Process scheduling – Operations on processes – Cooperating processes – Inter process communication – Communication in client – Server systems – Case study – IPC in linux – Threads – Multi-threading models – Threading issues – Case study – Pthreads library. UNIT 1

What is an Operating System? A program that acts as an intermediary between a user of a computer and the computer hardware. Operating system goals: Execute user programs and make solving user problems easier. Make the computer system convenient to use. Use the computer hardware in an efficient manner.

Computer System Components Hardware – provides basic computing resources (CPU, memory, I/O devices). Operating system – controls and coordinates the use of the hardware among the various application programs for the various users. Applications programs – define the ways in which the system resources are used to solve the computing problems of the users (compilers, database systems, video games, business programs). Users (people, machines, other computers). Abstract View of System Components

Operating System Definitions Resource allocator – manages and allocates resources....
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