English Notes

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Notes for English II
**What is culture?
1. The behaviors and beliefs characteristic of a particular social, ethnic, or age group 2. | the total of the inherited ideas, beliefs, values, and knowledge, which constitute the shared bases of social action | 3. | the total range of activities and ideas of a group of people with shared traditions, which are transmitted and reinforced by members of the group: the Mayan culture | 4. | the artistic and social pursuits, expression, and tastes valued by a society or class, as in the arts, manners, dress, etc | 5. | the attitudes, feelings, values, and behavior that characterize and inform society as a whole or any social group within it | 6. The sum of attitudes, customs, and beliefs that distinguishes one group of people from another. Culture is transmitted, through language, material objects, ritual, institutions, and art, from one generation to the next. ** Rhetorical Devices Examples

1) Allegory: Fables are allegories—they are stories with an underlying message/moral * The Ant and the Grasshopper (Aesop’s Fable)
In a field one summer's day a Grasshopper was hopping about, chirping and singing to its heart's content. An Ant passed by, bearing along with great toil an ear of corn he was taking to the nest. "Why not come and chat with me," said the Grasshopper, "instead of toiling and moiling in that way?" "I am helping to lay up food for the winter," said the Ant, "and recommend you to do the same." "Why bother about winter?" said the Grasshopper; we have got plenty of food at present." But the Ant went on its way and continued its toil. When the winter came the Grasshopper had no food and found itself dying of hunger, while it saw the ants distributing every day corn and grain from the stores they had collected in the summer. Then the Grasshopper knew: It is best to prepare for the days of necessity. *The Shepherd’s Boy

There was once a young Shepherd Boy who tended his sheep at the foot of a mountain near a dark forest. It was rather lonely for him all day, so he thought upon a plan by which he could get a little company and some excitement. He rushed down towards the village calling out "Wolf, Wolf," and the villagers came out to meet him, and some of them stopped with him for a considerable time. This pleased the boy so much that a few days afterwards he tried the same trick, and again the villagers came to his help. But shortly after this a Wolf actually did come out from the forest, and began to worry the sheep, and the boy of course cried out "Wolf, Wolf," still louder than before. But this time the villagers, who had been fooled twice before, thought the boy was again deceiving them, and nobody stirred to come to his help. So the Wolf made a good meal off the boy's flock, and when the boy complained, the wise man of the village said: "A liar will not be believed, even when he speaks the truth." *Animal Farm

George Orwell's Animal Farm is probably one of the best known examples of allegory in literature in which a farm governed by animals stands to represent the communist regime of Stalin in Russia before the Second World War. *"Moby Dick" by Herman Melville

A clear example of allegory; where the great white whale is more than a very large, aquatic mammal; it becomes a symbol for eternity, evil, dread, mortality, and even death, something so great and powerful that we humans cannot even agree on what it might mean. 2) Allusion:

* The girl’s love of sweets was her Achilles’ heel.
The sentence alludes to Achilles, the warrior of Greek mythology, who could only be harmed if something hit his heel. (i.e. Achilles’ only weakness was his heel) You +1'd this publicly. Undo In Greek mythology, Achilles was a Greek hero of the Trojan War, the central character and the greatest warrior of Homer's Iliad.

* Harriet Tubman was called the Moses of her time.

This sentence alludes to Moses, who led the Jewish people to the Promised Land; Like...
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