Notes: Organizational Behavior

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I. TOPIC 1: What is organizational structure?
Key topics under structure:
a) 6 elements of structure
b) Org. design
c) Models of structure
d) Factors affecting org structure
e) Global implication
ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE- refers to the way in which job tasks are formally, divided, grouped or coordinated.
The formal system of task and reporting relationships showing how workers use resources. A. 6 elements of structure:
1. Work Specialization
2. Departmentalization (grouped by-Function, product, process, customers, geography) 3. Chain of command ( Authority or unity of command)
4. Span of control (Wide or Narrow)
5. Centralization & Decentralization
6. Formalization
B. Types of organizational design:
1. Simple structure
2. Bureaucracy
3. Matrix structure
4. Virtual
5. Boundary-less
C. Models of Org design:
1. Mechanistic model
2. Organic model
D. Factors affecting org structure:
1. Strategy
2. Org size
3. Technology
4. Environment

II. TOPIC 2: What is organizational culture?
Key topics under culture:
a) Seven primary characteristics of org culture:
b) Types of culture
c) Comparison of a strong vs. a weak culture
d) Factors that create/sustain culture
e) How employees learn culture
Organizational Culture is system of shared values that are held by members of that distinguish the organization from other organizations A. Seven primary characteristics of org culture:
1. Attention to detail
2. Innovation and risk-taking
3. People orientation
4. Outcome orientation
5. Team orientation
6. Aggressiveness
7. Stability
B. Types of culture:
1. Tough-guy or macho culture
2. Work hard/ play hard culture
3. The bet your company culture
4. Process culture
C. Characteristics of a Strong vs. Weak Culture
1. Strong Culture- Strong core values,
2. Weak Culture-
D. Factors that create or sustain culture:
1. Select/ Hire appropriate employees who embody the organization’s culture. 2. Socialization process where employees learn and adapt to the existing culture 3. Pre-arrival stage- period of learning before an employee joins the organization 4. Encounter stage- socialization and adaption process

5. Metamorphosis stage- Employee changes and adjust to the org culture. E. How employees learn culture:
1. Ritual
2. Symbols
3. Stories
4. Language

III. TOPIC 3: Basic approaches to leadership
a) Definition of leadership and contrast to management
b) Trait Theories
c) Central principles & limitations of behavioural theories d) Contingency theories of leadership
e) Interactive theories

A. Definition of leadership and contrast to management:
1. Leadership is the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or set goals. Whereas, management consist of implementing the vision and strategy provided by leaders, coordinating and staffing the organization and handling day-to-day problems. B. Trait theories

1. Trait theories of leadership are theories that consider personal qualities and characteristics that differentiate leaders from non-leaders. 2. Leaders should encompass:
- ambition and energy (extraversion)
- conscientiousness and openness
- agreeableness and emotional stability
- Emotional intelligence

C. Central principles & limitations of behavioural theories 1. Behavioural theories of leadership propose that specific behaviours differentiate leaders from non- leaders. 2. Ohio State studies (1940)- Identified 2 independent dimensions of leadership behaviour - Initiating Structure refers to the extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of subordinates in the search of goal attainment. (correlates with higher levels of group and or...
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