Motor Learning and Coaching Notes

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Motor Learning and Coaching Notes

Motor Learning:
The study of relativity permanent changes in motor skills and capabilities that come with practice or experience. This includes:
Investigating how elite athletes become experts
Studying the best way for a teacher or coach to structure a practice environment for maximal potential •Methods of practicing motor skills
oHow often
oHow long
oGroup size
oEquipment

What is a Skill?
A complex movement or sequence of movements, which are smooth and coordinated. These movements don’t require conscious thought and have predetermined results. A learned skill is one that can be repeated. A performance may be a fluke and is only performed once.

Motor Skill: physical skills that require body movement and rely on motor control

Classification of a Skill:
Based on:
Where- the environment of the skill
Closed:
predictable, constant environment
Work at own pace- internally paced
Replication/ repetition of same skill
Examples: swimming in a pool, archery, shooting
Open:
Changing environment
Pace dependant on other people/ factors
Adaptations of skills to changes
Examples: swimming in the ocean, team games
Physical Effort
Fine:
Small muscle groups
Senses- sight and touch
Balance force and control
Speed and accuracy trade off
Gross:
Large muscle groups
Results in coordinated movement(s)

Type of Movement
Discrete:
Brief moment
Distinct beginning, middle and end
Examples: handstands, cartwheels, high jump, throwing
Continuous:
No distinct beginning middle etc
Flowing movements
Examples: running, knitting
Serial:
Group of discrete movements together
Complicated skilled action

Motor Programs:
Motor skills that are organized through a plan of action •Motor skills are made up of a number of related parts called Subroutines •To perform a motor program all subroutines must be performed in correct order •The performance of the motor program depends on the sequence and organization of the movement •The more subroutines the more difficult and complex the skill is

Teaching a Skill:
1.Introduce:
a.Provide a name for the skill to categorize and memorize the skill b.Maximize points without overloading the athlete and no more than 3 points 2.Demonstrate:
a.The skill should incorporate major teaching points
b.The whole skill should be demonstrated first then break it down into subroutines c.Should occur at normal speed and sequencing
3.Practice:
a.Practise should be as soon as possible
b.In the best practice conditions
i.Enough space
ii.Clear routines/ drills
iii.Position coaches/ teachers to give feedback
4.Provide feedback
a.The best way to improve performance and learning
b.Should incorperate some positive points
c.No more than 2 points for improvement
d.Practice again after feedback

Elements of a Training Session:
1.Warm up
a.Prepares the body physically and mentally
b.Include a light sweat
c.Winter- gloves/ hat used to raise temp
d.Summer- cool clothes and shorter warm up
e.Can be active:
i.Usual style of warm up
ii.Uses large muscle groups
iii.Walk, skip, ride, swim etc
f.Passive:
i.Hot sauna
ii.Hot bath
g.Specific
i.Replicate action used in competition
2.Fitness Component
a.25-30% of total session time
b.Flexibility activities undertaken
c.Aerobic activities → anaerobic activities
i.Strength
ii.Power etc
d.Can use apparatus’
i.Free weights
ii.Machines
iii.Therabands
iv.Stairs
v.Bricks
3.Skill Development
a.30-35% of total session time
b.Can be done as a full group or in smaller groups
c.Rotations
d.Dependant on the availability of equipment
4.Culmination
a.20-25% of total session time
b.Minor, modified or full game scenario
c.Used to practice new skills
5.Cool Down
a.2-5 mins or 10-15% of total session time
b.Gentle period of activity
c.Aim to return the...
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