There are three main areas of child development. These are physical, communication and intellectual and social, emotional and behavioural development. The physical stage takes place naturally but children must have opportunities to develop their natural skills. Children will need support to develop their gross and fine motor skills. Gross motor skills use the large muscles in the body, arms and legs, for example crawling, walking and throwing. Fine motor skills use the smaller muscles in the fingers for example using a pencil, fastening buttons and using a knife and fork. The communication and intellectual area of development concerns a childs language skills and learning ability. The number of opportunities and experiences a child has been given from an early stage can have an affect on the intellectual development of a child. The “nature versus nurture” debate describes two different theories of a child’s intellectual development. Some psychologists believe that a childs intellectual ability is something that they are born with, nature. While other psychologists believe that a child’s intellectual development is dependent on the opportunities that they have been given, nurture. How a child feels about itself, others and the confidence they gain are all part of their social, emotional and behavioural development. During this development stage a child will learn about the kinds of behaviour that are acceptable and how to become more independent. For a child to develop to the best of their ability they will need to have a secure environment where they feel safe. Physical development
From 0-3 years is a period of great physical development. In their first year a child will develop from having very little control over their body to being able to sit up, roll, crawl and hold objects. A child will start to walk, climb and play with a ball in their second year. As the ability to control their movement becomes greater they will be able to hold smaller objects, feed themselves and begin to dress themselves. In their third year a child will be able to turn pages in a book, use a cup, use crayons and pencils more effectively and walk and run more confidently. It is during this time that they will enjoy using more physical toys like tricycles and scooters. Between the ages of 3-7 a childs physical development means their movements are now more coordinated. The skills they have already developed have become more refined so they can now write, draw and use scissors. They can also now catch a ball, pedal a bike, hop and skip. The child continues to grow and refine their skills during the ages of 7-12. It is during this stage that they often take up a hobby, for example football or dancing, and the skills that are required by that hobby are further developed. Their fine motor skills become much more controlled which now allows them to be able to sew or play an instrument. Some girls may start to show the early signs of puberty. Between the ages of 12-16 a child goes through adolescence. During this period they grow stronger, taller and their weight will increase. Most girls will have gone through puberty in this stage and boys will be starting to go through it. As all children go through puberty at different times there will be a great difference in strength and height of different children. On average by the end of this stage usually boys are taller than girls. It is during this stage in development that a young person will be more likely to master a skill. At the age of 16-19 a young person is now an adult. Most girls would have reached physical maturity by this stage but boys will continue to physically develop until they are in their mid 20’s.
Communication and intellectual development
As soon as a child is born they begin to learn the skills of communication when adults talk and sing to them. It is important that they are stimulated because they can experience difficulties with communication in later life if they are not. From...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document