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Model of Human Occupation
The Beginning….  (MOHO) is a conceptual model of practice that evolved from Reilly's Occupational Behavior Model and General System Theory. Gary Keilhofner was a student of Mary Reilly who originally created this model as a Master's thesis in 1975. Within five years, Kielhofner and his colleagues published MOHO for the first time. What is it? The Model of Human Occupation is a conceptual practice model which is defined as "… a set of evolving theoretical arguments that are translated into a specific technology for practice and are refined and tested through research" (Kielhofner, 2002, p. 3). Focus Systemic, holistic approach for persons of varying needs and populations across the lifespan Stresses the importance of the mind/body connection in its depiction of how motivation (internal) and performance of occupation (external) are interconnected Human occupation is described as the "doing" of work, play, or activities of daily living within a temporal, physical, and sociocultural contexts. Interactive nature between the person and his environment and how this relationship contributes to one's source of motivation, pattern of behavior, and performance. PERSON - redefined for practice Kielhofner's theoretical view of the person is very comprehensive.

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Variables include one's motivation, behaviors, and performance. All 3 inter-relate to form a person's identity. Kielhofner has specifically grouped these variables into 3 subsystems that he calls 1) volition, 2) habituation, and 3) performance capacity. Volition Subsystem Volition is the source of motivation for occupation. Habituation Subsystem Habituation refers to the process by which occupation is organized to patterns or routines. Performance Subsystem Performance capacity refers to the physical and mental abilities that underlie skilled occupational performance. This subsystem is also called the mind-brain-body performance. Assumptions Humans are biologically mandated to be active. Spontaneous action is the most fundamental characteristic of all living things (Boulder, 1968; von Bertalanffy, 1968). Practice Application: Persons have a fundamental and neurologically based need for action and doing. This innate need is the dominant source of motivation for participation in occupation. Thinking, feeling, and doing are influenced by a dynamic interaction between one's internal components and the environment. Situations and conditions within the environment will influence a person's motivation.

Practice Application: Systems theory helps the practitioner to understand that there are multiple factors within the person and the environment that influence each other. A change (positive or negative) in any one variable will automatically result in a change in one's motivation, behavior, and/or performance. Man is an open system that can change and develop through interaction with the environment. The parts of the open systems cycle include input, throughput, output, and feedback. Practice Application: Person are continuously impacted by input from one's environment and feedback from one's environment. Client learn about themselves by experimenting with behaviors and receiving feedback about this behavior (output). Some cycles are positive and some are negative in outcome. Heterarchy is the principle that the demands of a context or situation will determine how human variables will organize themselves to achieve a sense of order. In a heterarchy, each component contributes something to the total outcome but the arrangement or order of these variables is changeable due to the conditions of the context and/or environment. Practice Application: The client's environment, context, and/or situation greatly influence how the person variables identified as volition (motivation), habituation, (habits and routines) and performance capacity (mind/body skills) will...
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